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Haloalkanes:

  • When the hydrogen of an alkane is replaced by halogen (like chlorine, bromine, fluorine etc. ), we get haloalkane .
    Alkane - (Hydrogen Atom) + Halogen Atom = Haloalkane

Eg. Chloromethane, Bromoethane, Chlorobutane etc.

Example

We know that Methane (CH 4 ) is an alkane

  • It has 1 Carbon atoms and 4 Hydrogen Atoms
  • If we replace 1 of Hydrogen Atom with Chlorine Atoms,
  • We get CH 3 Cl (Chloromethane)
  • Thus, Chloromethane is a Haloalkane.

CH 4 + HCl = CH 3 Cl + H 2

CHLOROMETHANE - Teachoo.jpg

Similarly,

We can replace hydrogen with other Halo-alkanes as well, such as bromine.

We get CH 3 Br (Bromomethane), CH 3 I, CH 3 F

These are all examples of Haloalkanes.

CH 4 +HBr=CH 3 Br

 

Naming of HaloAlkanes:

Step 1

We take Parent alkane by seeing number of carbon atoms

(If 1 Carbon Atom, we use Methane, if 2 carbon atoms ,we use ethane)

Step 2

We use Certain Prefix like Chloro, Bromo etc for Halogen Atom used

(‘Floro’ for Florine,  'Chloro' for Chlorine, 'Bromo' for Bromine, ‘Iodo’ for Iodine)

Example

CH 3 Cl is called Chloromethane for its 1 Carbon Atom , and 1 Chlorine atom in the structure

CHLOROMETHANE - Teachoo.jpg

General Formula for Alkanes and Haloalkanes

 

Alkane Name

HaloAlkane Name

C n H 2n+2

C n H 2n+1 -X

 

where X =Halogen Item like Chlorine,Bromine

 

Different Alkanes and their HaloAlkanes of Chlorine

 

Number of Carbon Atoms

Alkane Name

HaloAlkane Name

1

Methane

Chloromethane

 

CH 4

CH 3 Cl

2

Ethane

Chloroethane

 

C 2 H 6

C 2 H 5 Cl

3

Propane

Chloropropane

 

C 3 H 8

C 3 H 7 Cl

4

Butane

Chlorobutane

 

C 4 H 10

C 4 H 9 Cl

 

Different Alkanes and their Haloalkanes of Bromine

 

Alkane Name

Haloalkane Name

Methane

Bromomethane

CH 4

CH 3 Br

Ethane

Bromoethane

C 2 H 6

C 2 H 5 Br

Propane

Bromopropane

C 3 H 8

C 3 H 7 Br

Butane

Bromobutane

C 4 H 10

C 4 H 9 Br

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Maninder Singh

CA Maninder Singh is a Chartered Accountant for the past 12 years and a teacher from the past 16 years. He teaches Science, Economics, Accounting and English at Teachoo