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Let's look at the various chapters in Physics, Chemistry and Biology. And what we will study in them.
The chapters and list of topics are
- Chapter 1 Matter In Our Surroundings -
In this chapter, we will learn what is matter, that matter is made up of different particles. The Characteristics of Different Particles - like the space between them, the particles are constantly moving, the particles attract each other. Different States of Matter - Solid, Liquid, Gas and their properties. Change of state of matter - by changing temperature, by changing pressure. And finally, what Evaporation is and different applications of evaporation
- Chapter 2 Is Matter Around Us Pure -
We learned about Matter in Chapter 1, but infact, almost every material we see is a mixture. We learn what a mixture is, Different types of mixtures - Homogeneous and Heterogeneous mixture. What is a solution, Properties of Solution, Concentration of a Solution - Mass Percentage, Mass by Volume Percentage, Volume by Volume Percentage, What is a colloidal solution, Properties of Colloid, What is Tyndall effect, Separating Different Components of Mixture like Obtaining Dye from Blue or Black Ink, Separating Cream from Milk, Separating two immisicible liquids, Separating a mixture of salt and camphor, Separating two miscible liquids, What is distillation, What is fractional distillation, How to obtain different components from air, How to obtain pure copper from impure substance, Difference between Physical and Chemical Changes, What are Elements and Compounds, Difference between Mixtures and Compounds
- Chapter 3 Atoms And Molecules -
What is Law of Conservation of Mass, Law of Constant Proportion, What are atoms, Size of atoms, Symbols of different Elements, What is Atomic Mass, Atomic mass of different molecules, What are molecules, Molecules of Elements, Molecules of Compounds, What is an ion, How do we write Chemical Formulae of compounds, Writing down formula of different compounds, What is molecular mass, What is formula Unit Mass, What is Mole Concept
- Chapter 4 Structure Of The Atom -
We learned about Atoms in the last chapter, but what makes atoms of one element different from atoms of another element? Let's learn about it. First, we will learn about charges in atoms - protons, neutrons, electrons. We will study the Structure of Atom - Thomson's Model of Atom, Rutherford's Model of Atom, Drawbacks of both these models. Then we study about Bohr's Model of Atom. What are Neutrons, How are electrons distributed in different shells, What is valency, Valency of different elements, What is Atomic Number and Mass Number, What are isotopes, What are isobars
- Chapter 5 The Fundamental Unit Of Life -
Then, we move onto Biology. We study what are cells, What is a compound microscope, Who discovered cells, Different Parts of Cells, Cell Membrane - What is it made of, What is it used for, Diffusion through Cell Membrane, Cell Wall - What is it, Where is it present, Nucleus of a Cell - What is it, Nuclear Membrane, Chromosomes, DNA (Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid), Prokaryotes & Eukaryotes, What is Cytoplasm, Different Cell Organelles like Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER), Golgi Apparatus, Lysosomes, Mitochondira, Plastids, Vacuoles, How does Cell Division take place
- Chapter 6 Tissues -
What are tissues, What is the use tissues in organisms, What is the difference between Tissues of Plants and Animals, Plant tissues like Meristematic tissues, Simple Permanent Tissue, Complex Permanent Tissue, Different Animal Tissues like Epithelial Tissue, Connective Tissue, Muscular Tissue, Nervous Tissue and Uses of these tissues in Plants and Animals
- Chapter 7 Diversity In Living Organisms -
How do compare two different organisms, like an Indian Cow from an English cow?
In this chapter we learn What classification is, What is the basis of Classification, What is evolution and How do we classify based on evolution, What is biodiversity, Then we study different Hierarchy of Classifications. Starting with Groups - Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia. We study more about Plantae - Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnosperms, Angiosperms. Then comes Animalia - Porifera, Coelenterata (Cnidaria), Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca, Echinodermata, Protochordata, Vertebrata. Vertebrata are further classified as , Pisces, Amphibia, Aves, Mammalia. Then we study Nomenclature of Organisms
- Chapter 8 Motion -
This is the first chapter of Physics. We learn What is motion, Motion in a Straight Line, Uniform and Non-Uniform Motion - Meaning and Differences, Distance and Displacement, Speed and Velocity, What is average Speed, Average Velocity, What is acceleration, Acceleration in uniform and non-uniform motion, Negative Acceleration (Retardation), Representing motion in graphs - Distance-Time Graph and Velocity-Time Graph. Finding Velocity from a Distance Time Graph, Finding Acceleration and Velocity from a Velocity Time Graph, Graphs of Uniform and Non Uniform Motion, Equations of Motion and their derivations, Graphical Derivation of Equation of Motion, What is Uniform Circular Motion, Is velocity constant in Uniform Circular Motion. And solving Numericals based on these topics
- Chapter 9 Force And Laws Of Motion -
What is force, Why the push and pull definition of force is incorrect, What are Balanced and Unbalanced forces, What is Newton's First Law of Motion, What is intertia, What does inertia depend upon, Real life examples of Intertia like passenger on moving bus, removing dust particles from carpet by beating, etc. What is Momentum, What is the Second Law of Motion, Derivation of 2nd Law of Motion, Numerical Questions based on 2nd Law of Motion. What is 3rd Law of Motion, What is conservation of momentum, Derivation of Conservation of Momentum, Practical Examples and Numericals based on Conservation of Momentum,
- Chapter 10 Gravitation -
What do we mean by Gravitation, What is universal law of gravitation, Formula of Universal Law of Gravitation, What is G - Universal Gravitational Constant, What is the importance of Universal Law of Gravitation, What is free fall, What is gravity, How do we calculate Acceleration due to gravity (g), What is the difference between Gravitation and Gravity, What is the difference between Mass and Weight, What is the weight of an object on the moon, What do we mean by Thrust, What is pressure, Formula of Pressure, SI Unit of Pressure, What is the pressure applied by fluids, What do you mean by Buoyancy, How do we check if the object floats or sinks in water, What is Archimedes Principle, What is Density of a substance, What is Relative Density, What is the significance of relative density
- Chapter 11 Work And Energy -
We learn about what is work and what is energy in this Chapter. The topics include What is Work, What is work in Physics, What is the formula of Work, Positive, Negative and Zero Work Done, When can work done by 0, Work done in Uniform Circular Motion, What is energy, What are the different forms of energy. What is Kinetic Energy, Formula of Kinetic Energy, How is Kinetic Energy Formula derived, What is potential energy, What is potential energy of an object which is at some height, Transformation of Energy, Everyday appliances where Transformation of Energy is done, Conservation of Energy, What is Rate of Doing work (Power), Different Units of Power, Commercial unit of Energy
- Chapter 12 Sound -
In this chapter we will learn what sound it and different applications of it. The topics in this chapter are - What is sound, How do we produce sound, How does sound propagate, What do you mean by medium, What is a wave, What are Compressions and Rarefactions, What is a mechanical wave, Is Sound a mechanical wave, Does sound travel in vacuum, Experiment to prove that sound does not travel in vacuum, What are longitudinal and transverse waves, Different Characterstics of a Sound wave like Frequency, Amplitude, Speed, Pitch, What is intensity and loudness of a sound, How can we find which sound is of better quality, What is the speed of sound in different Media, How does Speed of Sound change with Temperature, What is Sonic Boom, Does sound reflect?, What is an echo, What are reverberations, Uses and Applications of Reflection of Sound, What is the range of hearing of humans, dogs, bats. What is infrasound and ultrasound, What are applications of ultrasound, How does SONAR work, Structure of Human ear and How do we hear
- Chapter 13 Why Do We Fall Ill -
What are diseases and illnesses, What do we mean by health, Health of Human Beings depend upon surroundings, How can we improve our surroundings to improve our health, What are 5 F's to be healthy, What is the difference in being healthy and being disease free, How can we identify if we're suffering from a disease, What are acute and chronic diseases, Effects of Diseases on us, What are the causes of disease, Infectious and Non Infectious Causes, Infectious Diseases - Different agents, how they are spread, Organ Specific and Tissue Specific Manifestations, Principles of Treatment, Principles of Prevention
- Chapter 14 Natural Resources -
We learn about Natural Resources and their role in our life in this chapter. Topics include What are natural resources, What is air, role of atmosphere in climate control, Winds, Rain, Air Pollution. Then, we move on to Water. Why is water so important for living organisms, Water pollution - effects, causes, preventive measures. Soil, Minerals in the soil, Soil Formation, Soil Erosion. Then we talk about Biogeochemical cycles like Water Cycle, Nitrogen Cycle, Carbon Cycle, Oxygen Cycle. Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer
- Chapter 15 Improvement In Food Resources -
We know that we have limited amount of land on earth and humans on the planet are growing at an exponential rate. So, inorder to provide them food, we should improve our Food Resources and make the process more efficient. This chapter is all about that.
In this chapter we will study, How to Improve Crop Yield, Improvement in Crop Variety, Improvement in Crop Production, Improvement in Crop Protection and Management, Nutrient Management of Crops - studying about Manures and Fertilisers, Improving Irrigation, Crop Patterns, Improving Storage of Grains, Animal Husbandry like Cattle Farming, Poultry Farming , Egg and Broiler Production, Fish Production, Marine Fisheries, Inland Fisheries, Bee Keeping
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