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Chemical Properties of Carbon Compounds:

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON COMPOUNDS - Teachoo.jpg

1. Combustion:

  • It is the process of burning carbon compounds in the presence of oxygen ( air) to release CO 2 and energy in the form of heat and light.  
  • Combustion is also known as burning.
  • Alkanes are very good fuels because when they burn in air, they produce a lot of energy. For example, methane CH 4 is a component of natural gas .

COMBUSTION OF METHANE - Teachoo.jpg

  • When methane burns in abundance of oxygen (sufficient supply of air), complete combustion takes place to produce CO 2 , H 2 O and energy.
  • The saturated hydrocarbons usually burn in air with a blue, non-sooty flame i.e. complete combustion takes place. But if they are burnt in limited oxygen supply, incomplete combustion takes place ( a yellow and sooty flame is produced). 
  • On the other hand, unsaturated hydrocarbons burn in air to produce a yellow sooty flame . However, if they are burnt in pure oxygen, complete combustion takes place.

YELLOW AND BLUE FLAME PRODUCED BY INCOMPLETE AND COMPLETE COMBUSTION RESPECTIVELY - Teachoo.jpg

BLACK SOOT PRODUCED ON INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION - Teachoo.jpg

2. Substitution Reaction :

  • These are the reactions in which one or more hydrogens of a hydrocarbon are replaced by some other atoms like chlorine .
  • Substitution reactions are a characteristic property of Saturated hydrocarbons which are otherwise quite unreactive due to the presence of only C-C single bonds , but they are able to undergo substitution reactions.

E.g. Chlorination of methane

CHLORINATION OF METHANE - Teachoo.jpg

3. Addition Reaction:

  • These reactions involve the addition of one or more hydrogen atoms to double/triple bonds
  • Therefore, this is a characteristic reaction of unsaturated hydrocarbons . Saturated hydrocarbons don’t show addition reactions.
  • For example, hydrogenation reactions .

Note: In this reaction Pd/C acts as a catalyst i.e. a substance to speed up the reaction.

HYDROGENATION OF ETHENE. - Teachoo.jpg

 

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CA Maninder Singh is a Chartered Accountant for the past 12 years and a teacher from the past 16 years. He teaches Science, Economics, Accounting and English at Teachoo