Concepts

Class 10
Chapter 4 Class 10 - Carbon and its Compounds

## Introduction

Carbon is an element from the periodic table of elements.

It is represented by the symbol C

• An element is a substance that cannot be further broken down into simpler substances by physical or chemical processes.
• It is non-metal
• While Earth’s crust and atmosphere only have Carbon in small quantities, we all are surrounded by carbon and the compounds derived from it.

All the living organisms, plants and animals, are made of carbon based compounds , called Organic compounds .

Let’s learn a few of its properties:

## Percentage Composition of Carbon in the Atmosphere: 0.03%

• It is present in the form of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide.

### Percentage Composition of Carbon in earth's crust: 0.02%

• It is present in the form of Carbonate, Hydrogen Carbonate, Coal and Petroleum

### Atomic Mass of Carbon:

• Atomic mass is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons present in an atom.
• It is represented by the symbol A .
• It is measured in Atomic mass units , or amu/u.
• For carbon, A=12 u.

### Atomic Number and Size of Carbon:

• It  is the number of electrons present in an atom.
• It is represented by the symbol Z .
• The atomic number of Carbon is 6 (Z=6).
• It means that 6 protons are present in the nucleus of a carbon atom.

## Electronic Arrangement of Carbon:

These 6 electrons revolve around Nucleus in shells .

They are present as follows

Shell Name                K   L

Number of Electrons   2     4

Hence, Carbon has 4 Valence Electrons (i.e. it has 4 electrons in its outermost shell).

### Valency of Carbon:

Valency is the number of electrons present in the outermost shell of an atom.

Since Carbon has 4 electrons in its outermost shell, hence Valency of Carbon is 4 .

### Position of Carbon in Periodic Table:

Carbon is the 6th element of the periodic table.

It belongs to Group 14 of the periodic table.

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