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Female Reproductive System

The female reproductive system consists of the following parts:

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1. Ovaries

  • Ovaries are the primary reproductive organs in females.
  • These are located in the abdominal cavity of females near the kidneys and are oval in shape.
  • Every female has 2 ovaries .
  • The ovaries produce mature female gametes called ova or eggs .
  • The also produce the female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone .
  • The ovary has thousands of immature eggs called follicles which mature at the time of puberty. 

2. Oviducts

  • These are present just above the ovaries.
  • It is also known as the fallopian tube .
  • Fertilization (i.e. fusion of male and female gametes) takes place in the oviduct.

3. Uterus

  • It is an elastic bag-like organ to which both the oviducts attach.
  • Uterus is the organ where growth and development of the fertilized egg takes place.

4. Cervix

  • It is a narrow opening which connects the uterus to vagina .

5. Vagina

  • Vagina is a tubular structure which receives the sperms from the penis.
  • It is also known as ‘birth canal’ because the baby comes out of this passage after completing its development in the uterus.

Note: Unlike males, the females have different openings for passage of urine (urethra) and of vagina .

Fertilization in humans

  • Internal Fertilization takes place in humans. That is the fusion of male and female gametes is inside the female body. 
  • Millions of sperms are released into the vagina through the penis. 
  • Since sperms are motile structures, they travel through the cervix and uterus and reach the ovum or egg cell which is the female gamete in the oviduct.

Only one sperm fuses with the ovum to form a zygote .

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Embryo Development

  • After the zygote is formed, it undergoes repeated cell division to form an embryo
  • This embryo is embedded in the thick lining of the uterus and the process is known as implantation . The further the embryo to form the fetus takes place in the uterus itself. 
  • After implantation, development of a disc shaped tissue takes place. This is known as placenta . The function of placenta includes: The exchange of food, oxygen and waste materials between the mother and the growing embryo.

 

Note: The placenta has villi (finger-like projections) which increase the surface area for exchange of materials between the mother and the developing embryo. 

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Transcript

FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Ovaries Oviducts/ Fallopian Tube Utrerus Cervix Vagina MALE AND FEMALE GAMETE IN HUMANS Human Male Sperm Human Female Ovum

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CA Maninder Singh

CA Maninder Singh is a Chartered Accountant for the past 12 years and a teacher from the past 16 years. He teaches Science, Economics, Accounting and English at Teachoo