Why is water needed by plants?

All living organisms require water including plants

Water helps plants roots in absorbing nutrients from manures and fertilizers

Seeds do not grow without supply of water

Water also helps in protecting crop from hot and cold air



What is irrigation

It is the process of supplying water to plants at regular intervals

 

Supply of Water

to plants

at regular intervals

is called irrigation

 

 

 

Why is irrigation done/What are benefits of irrigation?

  1.     Seeds cannot grow in dry soil Water is required by plants for germination
  2.     Water dissolve nutrients in soil so that plant can absorb it
  3.     Water is required to be added for loosening soil before ploughing

 

When is irrigation more required

Irrigation of crops is higher in summer due to the increase in the rate of evaporation of water from the soil and the leaves.

 

 

Source of irrigation

Water is provided from wells, tube wells, ponds, rivers, dams, canals

 

Different Irrigation Methods

 

Traditional Methods

They use manual labour or cattle to draw water from wells

Example

  • Moat(Pulley System)
  • Chain Pump
  • Dhekli
  • Rahat

 

 

 

Moat(Pulley System)

Water is drawn from well with the help of animal like bullock

Animal pulls rope from one end,bucket of water comes out of well from other end

 

Chain Pump

It has 2 wheels connected to chain,

One wheel is on ground,other is in pond or lake

Bucket is attached to chain

When handle of upper wheel is rotated,lower wheel also turns and water is filled in bucket

This filled bucket water moves up which is used for irrigation

 

Dhekli

A wooden beam is put over a forked support

Long arm of wooden beam is towards well,short arm is away from it

Weight is tied to shorter arm

Bucket is attached to longer arm and it is pulled down in well

When it is filled with water,rope is released

Weight of stone pushes bucket up

 

Rahat

It contains a large wheel.On Well there is a long belt which contains many metal pots

Wheel is rotated with the help of lever which is pulled by bullock cart

When wheel rotates, Lower end of belt dips in water of well metal pots get filled in water

They are drawn up ,water is emptied and the process is repeated

 

 

 

Traditional Methods of Irrigation.jpg

 

Use of Pumps for Irrigation

In traditional method,human labour or animals were used for lifting water for irrigation.

So,the traditional method was cheaper but less efficient.

These days pumps are used for lifting water(from wells,stream,lake,ponds and rivers).

These pumps run by electricity,solar energy,diesel and biogas.

Nowadays,tube wells are used for irrigation in agriculture.

 

Modern Methods

Innovative Methods are used like

 

Sprinkler System

It has a  pump,different perpendicular pipes and nozzle

When pump is opened,water sprinkles out from different nozzles

It is used for

  • Lawns
  • Coffee Plantation

It is mainly used in case of sandy soil or uneven land

Sprinkler System.jpg

Drip System

Water drips drop by drop to root of plant directly

There is no wastage of water in this case.

It is useful in those regions where availability of water is poor

It is used in case of watering of

  • fruits
  • trees
  • Gardens

Drip System.jpg

 

 

How does Irrigation depends on Nature of Soil and Nature of Crops

Nature of Soil

There are 2 types of soil:-
Sandy Soil
Clayey Soil
 
Sandy soil is highly permeable,water percolates down very fast,so plants are not able to get enough water,thus the crops cultivated in sandy soil require more water for irrigation
 
Clayey soil,is less permeable,it can retain water for a longer time,so enough water is available for the plants to absorb water,thus the crops cultivated in clayey soil need less water for irrigation
 

Nature of Crop

Every crop requires specific amount of water during various stages for its growth and ripening

Example-

Paddy crops are transplanted in standing water and require continuous irrigation.

While some crops do not require much water

Example-Gram and Cotton

Wheat crop requires water only at 3 stages

  • Before ploughing the field
  • At the time of flowering
  • At the time of development of grains

 

 

 

Questions

NCERT Question 6 - What is irrigation? Describe two methods of irrigation which conserve water

View Answer

 

NCERT Question 11 (1) - Complete the following word puzzle with the help of clues given below

Providing water to the crops

View Answer

 

 
  1. Class 8
  2. Chapter 1 Class 8 - Crop Production and Management

About the Author

CA Maninder Singh's photo - Expert in Practical Accounts, Taxation and Efiling
CA Maninder Singh
CA Maninder Singh is a Chartered Accountant for the past 9 years and a teacher from the past 16 years. He teaches Spoken English, Written English, Grammar and Vocabulary at Englishtan.