• Various food and non-food crops are grown in various regions of the nation depending on the changes in the soil, climate, and farming techniques
  • Rice , wheat, millets, lentils, tea, coffee, sugarcane, oil seeds, cotton , and jute , are major crops cultivated in India.


Distribution of rice cultivation in India - Teachoo.png

  • India is the second largest producer of rice in the world .
  • It is a Kharif crop 
  • Cimatic Condition to grow rice
  • High temperature ( above 25 ° C)
  • High precipitation ( above 100 cm )
  • High humidity 
  • In the areas of less rainfall, it grows with the help of irrigation
  • Major rice producing states : West Bengal , Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Jharkhand, etc 


Distribution of wheat - Teachoo.png

  • In the country's north and north-western regions , it serves as the primary food crop.
  • It is a rabi crop
  • Climatic conditions to grow wheat 
    •   Low temperature ( 20 ° - 25 ° C)
    • Bright sunshine at the time of ripening .
    • Moderate rainfall ( 50- 75 cm)
  • Important wheat growing zones in India 
    • Ganga Satluj Plain 
    • Deccan region 
    • Major wheat producing states: Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Uttarakhand, etc 


Millets - Teachoo.png


  • In India , the three most significant millets are jowar, bajra, and ragi. 
  • They are known as coarse grains .
  • These have a high nutritional value


  • Rich in iron, calcium , and roughage.
  • Cultivate on red, black, sandy, loamy , and shallow black soils .
  • Major ragi-producing states : Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Jharkhand, and Arunachal Pradesh.


  • Grows on sandy and shallow black soils.
  •   Major bajra-producing States: Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Haryana.


  • It is a rain-fed crop that is primarily grown in moist regions and requires little irrigation.
  • Major Jowar producing States : Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh.


  • This particular crop is used both as food and fodder
  • It is a Kharif crop
  • Temperature suitable for growing maize : 21° C - 27° C
  • It grows well on old alluvial soil .
  • In Bihar maize is grown in the rabi season .
  • Major maize-producing states: Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, and Telangana.


  • India is the largest producer and the consumer of pulses in the world .
  • These constitute the main protein source in a vegetarian diet. 
  • Major pulses are grown in India : tur (arhar), urad, moong, masur, peas and gram. 
  • Pulses can be grown in dry conditions and require less moisture .
  • All leguminous crops (except arhar) help to restore soil fertility by fixing nitrogen from the air.
  • Typically cultivated with other crops in rotation .
  • Major pulse-producing states in India: Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, and Karnataka.
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Davneet Singh

Davneet Singh has done his B.Tech from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He has been teaching from the past 14 years. He provides courses for Maths, Science, Social Science, Physics, Chemistry, Computer Science at Teachoo.