Depending on the characteristics of the physical environment , technical advancements , and sociocultural customs , cultivation techniques have varied substantially over the years.

The types of farming vary from subsistence to commercial farming.

  Types of Farming - Teachoo.png


Primitive Subsistence Farming

Slash and burn cultivation - Teachoo.png

  • Primitive Subsistence Farming is the traditional way of farming .
  • In this type of farming, farmers produce crops for their own consumption .
  • Practiced on small patches of the land with the help of traditional tools.
  • Traditional tools   -  hoe, dao, digging sticks, and sickle.
  • This style of farming is relian t on the monsoon, soil fertility, and environmental factors.
  • Known as shifting cultivation or slash and burn cultivation .
  • To feed their families, farmers clear a plot of land and grow crops.
  • When the soil fertility decline , the farmers shift and clear a fresh patch of land
  • This helps to restore soil fertility.
  • Land productivity is low as the farmer doesn't use modern inputs.
  • Different regions of the country have different names for slash and burn cultivation .




North Eastern States of India 




Mexico and  Central America






Intensive Subsistence Farming

  • Intensive Subsistence farming is practiced in the areas of high population pressure on land .
  • It is a Labour intensive farming.
  • High amounts of biochemical inputs and irrigation are used to increase yield .
  • Right of inheritance results in the split of land among succeeding generations and has made land-holding size uneconomical .
  • Agriculture land is under a great deal of pressure. 

Commercial Farming

  • This type of farming uses modern inputs , such as high-yielding variety (HYV) seeds, c hemical fertilizers, insecticides, and pesticides.
  • This will foster crop productivity .
  • Plantation is also a type of commercial farming.


Coffee plantation - Teachoo.png

  • In this kind of farming a single crop is cultivated over a large region  
  • With the aid of migrant laborers , plantations use capital-intensive inputs to cover enormous areas of land.
  • A well-developed network of transportation and communication linking the plantation lands , processing companies, and marketplaces plays a crucial role in the growth of plantations 
  • Examples: Tea in Assam and Coffee in Karnataka 


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Davneet Singh

Davneet Singh has done his B.Tech from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He has been teaching from the past 14 years. He provides courses for Maths, Science, Social Science, Physics, Chemistry, Computer Science at Teachoo.