The Civil Disobedience Movement saw the participation of different social classes and groups. Give reasons for the participation of the following:
(a) rich peasants
(b) poor peasants
(c) business classes
(d) industrial working classes
Answer to be written in the exam
The reason for participation of various classes was
- Being producers of commercial crops , they were very hard hit by the trade depression and falling prices.
- Their cash income disappeared , they found it impossible to pay the government’s revenue demand.
- Refusal of the government to reduce the revenue demand led to widespread resentment.
- For them the fight for swara j was a struggle against high revenues.
B. Poor Peasants
- Poorer peasantry was not just interested in lowering revenue demand .
- They were small tenants cultivating land they had rented from landlords .
- Depression continued and cash incomes dwindled , the small tenants found it difficult to pay their rent .
- They wanted the unpaid rent to the landlords to be remitted .
C. Business Class
- During the First World War , Indian merchants and industrialists had made huge profits and had become powerful .
- Keen on expanding their business , they now reacted against the colonial policies that restricted business activities .
- They wanted protection against imports of foreign goods .
- To organize business interests , they formed the Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress in 1920 and the Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FICCI) in 1927.
D. Industrial Working Class
- The industrial working classes did not participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement in large numbers , except in the Nagpur region.
- Workers stayed aloof , as the Industrialists came closer to the Congress .
- Congress was reluctant to include workers demands as part of its programme of struggle .
- Congress felt that this would alienate industrialists and divide the anti-imperial forces .
- Another important feature of the Civil Disobedience Movement was the large-scale participation of women .
- During Gandhiji’s salt march , thousands of women came out of their houses to listen to him.
- They participated in protest marches, manufactured salt , and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops .
- Many women went to jail also.