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  • It includes higher plants that bear flowers and seeds. Seeds are the result of the reproductive process.
  • They contain an embryo along with the stored food, which serves for the initial growth of the embryo during germination.
  • The plant body is sporophytic and differentiated into root, stem and leaves.
  • An embryo develops from a fertilized egg.

Phanerogams are further classified as gymnosperms and angiosperms.

a. Gymnosperms:

  • Seeds are not formed inside a fruit. They are naked.
  • They do not produce flowers.
  • Xylem does not have vessels and the phloem has no companion cells and sieve tubes.
  • These plants have vascular tissues which help in the transportation of nutrients and water.
  • They are not differentiated into ovary, style and stigma.
  • They are pollinated directly by the wind as the stigma is absent.

 

b. Angiosperms:

  • Angiosperms are highly evolved plants and they produce seeds that are enclosed within the fruit.
  • All plants have flowers at some stage in their life. The flowers are the reproductive organs for the plant, providing them with a means of exchanging genetic information.
  • They are differentiated into roots, stems and leaves.
  • The vascular system has true vessels in the xylem and companion cells in the phloem.
  • Plant embryos in seeds have structures, called cotyledons.
  •  

On the basis of number of Cotyledons,the angiosperms are divided into two groups:

Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons.

 

Dicotyledons:

  • The seeds of these plants have two cotyledons.
  • They contain tap roots , instead of adventitious roots.
  • The leaves depict a reticulate venation.
  • The flowers are tetramerous or pentamerous and the vascular bundles are organized in rings.
  • For example: grapes, sunflower, tomatoes, etc.

Monocotyledons:

  • The seeds have a single cotyledon.
  • The leaves are simples and the veins are parallel.
  • This group contains adventitious roots.
  • Each floral whorl has three members.
  • It has closed vascular bundles and large in number.
  • For Example: banana, sugarcane, lilies, etc.

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CA Maninder Singh is a Chartered Accountant for the past 12 years and a teacher from the past 16 years. He teaches Science, Economics, Accounting and English at Teachoo