- It includes those plants which do not produce external flowers or seeds . Thus, they are considered to bear hidden reproductive organs.
- Cryptogams are plants that produce spores to reproduce instead of seeds .
- These plants do not have flowers or fruits.
Cryptogams are further classified as thallophytes, bryophytes and pteridophytes.
- They are most primitive and simple plants . It is in the form of undivided thallus.
- Most algae are water growing or aquatic (both marine and fresh water), some are terrestrial i.e. live on land near moist places.
- It consists of red, green and brown algae.
- They are autotrophic in nature.
- Most members of this group manufacture their own food. But a few members like fungi are dependent on other sources of food.,
- Absence of vascular tissue.
- Unlike other plants, xylem and phloem are absent. etc
- Green algae - Ulothrix, Cladophora, Spirogyra, Ulva and Chara.
- Red algae - Batra,polysiphonia.
- Brown algae - Laminaria, Fucus, Sargassum.
- Brophytes are small multicellular green land plants. They are present in the shady damp places.
- They are also called “Amphibians of the Plant Kingdom”.
- Plants in this category do not have roots but have crude stems and leaves.
- They have “rhizoids” instead of roots which helps the plant to anchor to surface.
- A true vascular system is absent in them.
- Bryophytes are an informal division that consists of 3 groups of non-vascular plants, namely mosses, liverworts, and hornworts.
- An embryo is formed upon fertilisation.
- They are found mainly in shady or damp places.
- These plants have no flowers and do not produce seeds.
- The plant body is made up of root, stem and leaves.
- They have well-developed vascular system(xylem and phloem) for the conduction of water and other substances, from one part of the plant body to other.
- Fertilised egg develops into embryo.
For Example: Equisetum, Pteris, Lycopodium