Class 9
Chapter 7 Class 9 - Diversity In Living Organisms
  • It includes those plants which do not produce external flowers or seeds . Thus, they are considered to bear hidden reproductive organs.
  • Cryptogams are plants that produce spores to reproduce instead of seeds .
  • These plants do not have flowers or fruits.

Cryptogams are further classified as thallophytes, bryophytes and pteridophytes.


a. Thallophytes:

  • They are most primitive and simple plants . It is in the form of undivided thallus.
  • Most algae are water growing or aquatic (both marine and fresh water), some are terrestrial i.e. live on land near moist places.
  • It consists of red, green and brown algae.
  • They are autotrophic in nature.
  • Most members of this group manufacture their own food. But a few members like fungi are dependent on other sources of food.,
  • Absence of vascular tissue.
  • Unlike other plants, xylem and phloem are absent. etc

For Example  

  • Green algae - Ulothrix, Cladophora, Spirogyra, Ulva and Chara.
  • Red algae - Batra,polysiphonia.
  • Brown algae - Laminaria, Fucus, Sargassum.


b. Bryophytes:

  • Brophytes are small multicellular green land plants. They are present in the shady damp places.
  • They are also called “Amphibians of the Plant Kingdom”.
  • Plants in this category do not have roots but have crude stems and leaves.
  • They have “rhizoids” instead of roots which helps the plant to anchor to surface.
  • A true vascular system is absent in them.
  • Bryophytes are an informal division that consists of 3 groups of non-vascular plants, namely mosses, liverworts, and hornworts.
  • An embryo is formed upon fertilisation.


c. teridophytes:

  • They are found mainly in shady or damp places.
  • These plants have no flowers and do not produce seeds.
  • The plant body is made up of root, stem and leaves.
  • They have well-developed vascular system(xylem and phloem) for the conduction of water and other substances, from one part of the plant body to other.
  • Fertilised egg develops into embryo.


For Example: Equisetum, Pteris, Lycopodium

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CA Maninder Singh is a Chartered Accountant for the past 13 years and a teacher from the past 17 years. He teaches Science, Economics, Accounting and English at Teachoo