Conventional Sources of Energy are those Sources of Energy which we have been using for a long time.



  • Fossil Fuels like Coal, Petroleum - We burn them to produce heat
  • Wood - We used to burn wood to produce heat
  • HydroElectric Power Plants - Converting water at height into Electricity
  • Bio-Mass - We used to use Cow-dung cakes as a fuel
  • Wind Energy - We have been using Wind Energy to generate fuel since a long while


Let’s discuss them one by one


Fossil Fuels


We burn Fossil Fuels like Coal and Petroleum to generate Heat and Electricity


Let’s look at Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Fossil Fuels


Advantages of using Fossil Fuels

  • Since we have been using Fossil Fuels for our Energy requirements, our technologies (like car, train) have been made by using Fossil Fuels as a fuel


Disadvantages of using Fossil Fuels

  • Fossil Fuels were formed millions of years ago, and there are only limited reserves left.
    If we keep using fossil fuels at this rapid rate, it will run out.
  • Burning of Fossil fuels causes harm to environment and leads to phenomenons like Acid Rain, Global Warming


In addition to using fossil fuels to run our Cars and Bikes, we also use it to generate electricity.


Electricity generated by Fossil Fuels is generated in a Thermal Power Plant


In a Thermal Power Plant, 

  • We burn Coal or Petroleum to Produce Heat.
  • This Heat is used to convert water into Steam
  • The Steam rotates the Turbines 
  • And the Turbine rotates the Dynamo, which converts Mechanical Energy into Electric Energy


Hence, the conversion in Thermal Power Plant happens like

Burning coal


Mechanical Energy


Electrical Energy


Another conventional source of Energy is


Hydroelectric Power Plant


Hydroelectric Power Plants are used where Water is at a height


In Hydroelectric Power Plant, Potential Energy of the Water at a height is converted into Mechanical Energy by Rotating the Turbines


This Mechanical energy is further converted into Electrical Energy


To put the water at a height, we use Dams.


Dams are formed in rivers to stop their flow, and keep it at a height.



Advantages of using Hydroelectric Power Plant

Since water in the dams will get filled by itself due to rain, it is a renewable source of energy


Disadvantages of using Hydroelectric Power Plant

  • Dams can only be constructed in specific number of places, like, hilly terrains
  • Large areas of agricultural and human land is submerged under water
  • The vegetation which is submerged under water rots in anaerobic conditions which leads to generation of huge amounts of methane. Methane is a greenhouse gas
  • There is a problem of proper displacement of people who are living in the area near the dam






  1. Class 10
  2. Chapter 14 Class 10 - Sources of Energy

About the Author

Davneet Singh's photo - Teacher, Computer Engineer, Marketer
Davneet Singh
Davneet Singh is a graduate from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He has been teaching from the past 9 years. He provides courses for Maths and Science at Teachoo.