Northern Plains of India - Teachoo.png

  • Has been formed by the interplay of the 3 major river systems, namely- Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra along with their tributaries.
  • This plain is formed of alluvial soil.
  • Deposition of alluvium in a vast basin lying at foothills of Himalaya over years, formed this fertile plain.
  • It spreads over an area of 7Lakh The plain being about 2400 km long and 240 to 320km broad, and is densely populated.
  • With a rich soil cover combined with adequate water supply and favourable climate it is agriculturally productive.
  • Rivers coming from northern mountains are involved in depositional work. In the lower course, due to gentle slope, velocity of river decreases, which results in formation of riverine islands.
  • MAJULI, in the Brahmaputra river is the largest inhabited riverine island in the world.
  • Rivers in their lower course, split into numerous channels due to deposition of silt. These channels are called Distributaries.

Northern Plains- as per Geographical location - Teachoo.png

  • Western part of northern plains is referred to as Punjab Plains. Formed by Indus river and its tributaries, larger part of this plain lies in Pakistan.
  • Indus and its tributaries : Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Satluj originate in the Himalayas.
  • Doab : is made up of 2 words; do meaning 2, ab meaning water. Similarly,
    •  ‘Punjab’ is made up of 2 words : Punj meaning 5, ab meaning water.
  • Ganga plain extends between Ghaggar and Teesta rivers. It is spread over states of North India, Haryana, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, partly Jharkhand and West Bengal to its east.
  • Brahmaputra plain lies in Assam. They cover the areas of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh.
  • Northern plains also have diverse relief features, according to this diversity,

Northern plains can be divided into 4 regions :

  1. The rivers, after descending from mountains, deposit pebbles in a narrow belt of about 8 to 16km in width lying parallel to slopes of the shiwaliks. It is called Bhabar.
  2. To the south of this belt, streams and rivers re-emerge and create a wet, swampy and marshy region called Terai . This was a thickly forested region full of wildlife.
  3. Largest part of the northern plain is formed of older alluvium. It lies above the floodplains of rivers and presents a terrace like feature. This is called Bhangar. The soil in this region contains calcareous deposits, locally known as Kankar.
  4. The newer, younger deposits of floodplains are called Khadar . They are renewed almost every year and are fertile, thus, ideal for intensive agriculture.
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Davneet Singh's photo - Co-founder, Teachoo

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Davneet Singh

Davneet Singh has done his B.Tech from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He has been teaching from the past 14 years. He provides courses for Maths, Science, Social Science, Physics, Chemistry, Computer Science at Teachoo.