• They are geologically young and structurally fold mountains stretching over the northern borders of India.
  • These mountain ranges run from west- east direction, from the Indus to Brahmaputra rivers.
  • Himalayas represent the loftiest (of great heights) , most rugged mountain barriers of the world.
  • They form an arc which covers a distance of about 2400 km. Their width varies from 400 km in Kashmir to 150 km in Arunachal Pradesh.


The 3 Himalayan Ranges - Teachoo.png

The 3 Himalayan Ranges

  • The Himalayas consist of 3 parallel ranges in its longitudinal extent. A number of valleys lie between these ranges.
  • Northern most range is called Great or Inner Himalayas or HIMADRI.
    • Most continuous range consisting of the loftiest peaks with an average height of 6,000 metres.
    • It contains all prominent Himalayan peaks.
    • Folds of Great Himalayas are asymmetrical in nature. Core of this part of Himalayas is composed of granite.
    • It is constantly covered with snow, and a lot of glaciers descend from this range.

Highest Himalayan Peaks of India - Teachoo.png

  • Range lying to the south of Himadri forms the most rugged mountain system called HIMACHAL or lesser Himalayas.
    • The ranges are composed of highly compressed and altered rocks.
    • Altitude varies between 3700 and 4500 metres and average width is of 50km.
    • Longest and the most important range : Pir Panjal range.
    • Most prominent ranges : Dhaula Dhar and Mahabharata range.
    • This range consists of the famous Kashmir valley, Kangra and Kullu valleys in Himachal Pradesh.
    • This region is well known for its hill stations.
  • Outer most range of Himalayas is called the SHIWALIKS.
    • They extend over a width of 10-50km and have an altitude varying between 900-1100 metres.
    • These valleys are covered with thick gravel and alluvium.
  • Longitudinal valley lying between lesser Himalaya and the Shiwaliks are known as DUNS.
  • Dehra Dun, Kotli Dun, Patli Dun are some of the well known Duns.


Regional Himalayas :

regional division of himalayas - Teachoo.png

  • Besides longitudinal divisions, Himalayas have also been divided on the basis of regions from west to east. These divisions are marked by river valleys.
  • Part of Himalayas lying between Indus and Satluj are called Punjab Himalaya, but regionally it is known as Kashmir and Himachal Himalaya from west to east respectively.
  • Part of the Himalayas lying between Satluj and Kali rivers is known as Kumaon Himalayas.
  • Kali and Teesta rivers mark the Nepal Himalayas and the part between Teesta and Dihang rivers is called Assam Himalayas.                   

Brahamaputra marks the eastern most boundary of Himalayas.

  • Beyond the Dihang river, Himalayas bend sharply to the south and spread along the eastern boundary of India. They are known as the Purvanchal or Eastern Hills and mountains.
  • These hills running through north eastern states are composed of strong sandstones, which are sedimentary rocks . Covered with dense forests, they mostly run as parallel ranges and valleys.
  • Purvachal comprises the Patkai Hills, the Naga hills, the Manipur hills and the Mizo hills.


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Davneet Singh

Davneet Singh has done his B.Tech from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He has been teaching from the past 14 years. He provides courses for Maths, Science, Social Science, Physics, Chemistry, Computer Science at Teachoo.