• Human development means the development of an individual through raising the level of their well-being to lead a purposeful and creative life. 
  • The focus on human development concentrates on indicators concerning health, longevity and literacy in addition to per capita income.

Human Development Index (HDI)

  • Human Development Index is the quality of life index prepared by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) .
  • Through Human Development Index (HDI), which is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators , is used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. 

components of human development index - Teachoo.png


The main indicators used by UNDP for measuring development are-

  1. Adult Literacy Rate- means the proportion of the literate population in the 15 and above age group.
  1. Gross Enrollment Rate - means enrollment ratio for primary school, secondary school, and higher education beyond secondary school.
  1. Life Expectancy at Birth- It denotes the average expected length of life of a person at the time of birth

Adding all the three indicators and dividing by 3, gives the human development index:   

HDI is sum of  LE index + GER index + PCI and divided by 3

main indicators FOR MEASURING hdi - Teachoo.png


HDI = Human Development Index  

PCI = Per Capita Income  

LE = Life Expectancy  

GER = Gross Enrolment Ratio  



  1. HDI indicates to a country how far it has reached and how far it has yet to reach to achieve high ranks in matters such as per capita income of the people.
  2. With that, other factors like life expectancy , literacy rate , and health status are also considered.

Human Development Report (HDR)

How is economic development different from Human Development ?

Economic Development

Human Development

It refers to quantitative growth taking place in an economy measured through an increase in the production of goods and services during a year .

Human Development Report published by UNDP revolves around qualitative growth of a country in comparison to other countries using indicators like educational level of people, their health status, and per capita income.

It is measured on the basis of National and Per Capita income.

It is measured as a cumulative index of -

  1. Life expectancy
  2. Adult literacy Rate
  3. Gross Enrollment Ratio
  4. Standard of living is judged by per capita income.

It is narrow in scope.

It is broader in scope.

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Davneet Singh

Davneet Singh has done his B.Tech from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He has been teaching from the past 14 years. He provides courses for Maths, Science, Social Science, Physics, Chemistry, Computer Science at Teachoo.