(a) Compare soaps and detergents on the basis of their composition and cleansing action in hard water.

(b) What happens when ethanol is treated with sodium metal? State the behaviour of ethanol in this reaction.

(c) Draw the structure of cyclohexane.

(d) Name the following compound.








Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acid/carboxylic acids.

Detergents are long chain ammonium or sulphonate salts of long chain fatty.

Cleansing action in hard water

They are not able to work in hard water because the Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ ions present in hard water react with soap to form a white sticky substance called scum. They work well in both hard water and soft water.

(b) Ethanol reacts with sodium metal to produce sodium ethoxide and hydrogen gas. This salt is colorless and soluble in water.

 The reaction that takes place is:

Reaction of Ethanol with Sodium - Teachoo.png


This reaction is used to test the presence of ethanol or alcohol because the hydrogen gas that is released burns with a pop sound so can be detected.

(c) Structure of cyclohexane: 

Structure of Cyclohexane - Teachoo.png


(d) The compound is ethanal.      


Reaction of Ethanol with Sodium 2C2H5OH Ethanol (Ethyl alcohol) 2Na Sodium 2C2H5O-Na+ Sodium ethoxide H2 Hydrogen

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Maninder Singh

CA Maninder Singh is a Chartered Accountant for the past 14 years and a teacher from the past 18 years. He teaches Science, Economics, Accounting and English at Teachoo