To prove one-one & onto (injective, surjective, bijective)

Chapter 1 Class 12 Relation and Functions
Concept wise

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### Transcript

Ex 1.2, 10 Let A = R − {3} and B = R − {1}. Consider the function f: A → B defined by f (x) = ((x − 2)/(x − 3)) Is f one-one and onto? Justify your answer. f (x) = ((x − 2)/(x − 3)) Check one-one f (x1) = ((x"1 " − 2)/(x"1" − 3)) f (x2) = ((x"2 " − 2)/(x"2" − 3)) Putting f (x1) = f (x2) ((x"1 " − 2)/(x"1" − 3)) = ((x"2 " − 2)/(x"2" − 3)) Rough One-one Steps: 1. Calculate f(x1) 2. Calculate f(x2) 3. Putting f(x1) = f(x2) we have to prove x1 = x2 (x1 – 2) (x2 – 3) = (x1 – 3) (x2 – 2) x1 (x2 – 3) – 2 (x2 – 3) = x1 (x2 – 2) – 3 (x2 – 2) x1 x2 – 3x1 – 2x2 + 6 = x1 x2 – 2x1 – 3x2 + 6 – 3x1 – 2x2 = – 2x1 – 3x2 3x2 – 2x2 = – 2x1 + 3x1 x1 = x2 Hence, if f (x1) = f (x2), then x1 = x2 ∴ f is one-one Check onto f (x) = ((x − 2)/(x − 3)) Let f(x) = y such that y ∈ B i.e. y ∈ R – {1} So, y = ((x − 2)/(x − 3)) y(x – 3) = x – 2 xy – 3y = x – 2 xy – x = 3y – 2 x (y – 1) = 3y – 2 x = (3y − 2)/(y − 1) For y = 1 , x is not defined But it is given that y ∈ R – {1} Hence , x = (3y − 2)/(y − 1) ∈ R – {3} Now, Checking for y = f(x) Putting value of x in f(x) f(x) = f((3y − 2)/(y − 1)) = (((3y − 2)/(y − 1)) − 2)/(((3y − 2)/(y − 1)) −3) = ((((3y − 2) − 2(𝑦 −1))/(y − 1)))/((((3y − 2) − 3(𝑦 −1))/(y − 1)) ) = (3𝑦 − 2 − 2𝑦 + 2)/(3𝑦 − 2 − 3𝑦 + 3) = 𝑦/1 = y Thus, for every y ∈ B, there exists x ∈ A such that f(x) = y Hence, f is onto

#### Davneet Singh

Davneet Singh has done his B.Tech from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He has been teaching from the past 13 years. He provides courses for Maths, Science, Social Science, Physics, Chemistry, Computer Science at Teachoo.