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Empty Relation

If Relation has no elements,

it is called empty relation

We write R = ∅


Universal Relation

If relation has all the elements,

it is a universal relation


Let us take an example

Let A = Set of all students in a girls school.

We define relation R on set A as

R = {(a, b): a and b are brothers}

R’ = {(a, b): height of a & b is greater than 10 cm}




R = {(a, b): a and b are brothers}

It is a girls school, so there are no boys in the school.

Hence, there cannot be a brother.

∴ R has no elements

⇒ R = ∅ i.e. R is an empty relation



R’ = {(a, b): height of both a & b is greater than 10 cm}

Height of children are always greater than 10 cm (0.3 foot)

Thus, height of a and b will always be greater than 10 cm

∴ R has all the students of the school.

⇒ R is a universal relation, since it has all the elements


What are trivial relations?

Sometimes, empty relation and universal relation are called trivial relations

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Davneet Singh

Davneet Singh has done his B.Tech from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He has been teaching from the past 13 years. He provides courses for Maths, Science, Social Science, Physics, Chemistry, Computer Science at Teachoo.