How is a federal government different from the unitary form of government? Why are federations preferred these days?



Answer to be written in exam 

Unitary Government Federal Government
1. There is only one level of government. In case of sub-units, they are subordinate to the National govt. There are two or more levels of governments i.e. National, State and Local govt.
2. There is no division of powers . The Central or National govt has all the powers. There is division of powers between different levels of the government.
3. State govt or subunits are answerable to the Central govt. State govt is not answerable to the Central or National govt.
4. All powers are with Central govt. There is no separate jurisdiction for the sub-units. The central govt can grant them powers and take back at any time. Jurisdiction of each govt i.e. State and Central is specified in the constitution and cannot be changed unilaterally.
5. The Central govt alone can make constitutional amendment like an ordinary law.

Constitutional amendment cannot be made without the consent of the State govt.

6. Courts do not enjoy powers of safe-guarding/interpreting the constitution. Courts such as Supreme Court of India safeguards and interprets the constitution. 
7. Sources of revenue are controlled by the central govt.

Sources of revenue are divided among different levels of the government.

8. Examples- Sri Lanka, UK

Examples- India, USA

A federation is preferred in most nations because of its dual objective-

  1. Safeguarding and promotion of the unity of the country.
  2. It facilitates in the accommodation and assimilation of the diversity of the country.
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Davneet Singh has done his B.Tech from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He has been teaching from the past 14 years. He provides courses for Maths, Science, Social Science, Physics, Chemistry, Computer Science at Teachoo.