How is federalism practised?

Following are the major ways by which federalism is practiced in democratic politics of India-

Linguistic States

  1. The first and biggest test for democratic politics in India was the establishment of linguistic states.
  2. The New States have been formed while many old States have disappeared . S tates' territories, borders, and names have changed.
  3. Several former Indian States had their borders altered in 1947 in order to make way for new States.
  4. To guarantee that speakers of the same language resided in the same State, this was done. Some states were established to recognise differences based on culture, ethnicity, or geography rather than language.
    States like Nagaland, Uttarakhand, and Jharkhand are among them.
  5. The country has been more integrated as a result of the linguistic States' creation. Additionally, it has simplified administration.

Language Policy

  1. The designation of national language was not conferred by the Constitution onto any particular tongue. As the official language , Hindi was chosen.

  2. 1300 different languages were identified as mother tongues in the 2011 Indian census. The census revealed 121 major languages. 

  3. The eighth schedule of the Indian Constitution presently includes 22 languages , which are referred to as "Scheduled Languages" and are now part of this list.
    Others are called ‘‘non- Scheduled Languages’’. 

  4. There are official languages specific to each state. The official language of the relevant State is used for the majority of state purposes.   

  5. The official stance of the Indian government is to promote Hindi. Promotion does not give the Central Government the right to impose Hindi on States when the majority of the population speaks another language. 


Center-state relations

  1. Another way federalism has been enhanced in practise is through restructuring the relationship between the Center and the States. 

  2. The degree to which the ruling parties and leaders implement the constitutional provisions for power sharing will determine how well they function in practice. 

  3.   In various states around the nation, regional political parties suddenly began to flourish after 1990 . Additionally, this marked the start of the age of coalition governments , which are created when at least two political parties join forces.

  4. The major national parties had to create an alliance with numerous parties, including a number of regional parties , to establish a government at the Centre because no single party received a clear majority in the Lok Sabha. 
  5. A new paradigm of power sharing and support for the independence of State Governments resulted from this.
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Davneet Singh

Davneet Singh has done his B.Tech from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He has been teaching from the past 14 years. He provides courses for Maths, Science, Social Science, Physics, Chemistry, Computer Science at Teachoo.