Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation

  • By now we know industries contribute significantly to India’s economic growth and development , but the increase in land , air , water , and noise pollution caused by the industries and the resulting degradation of the environment cannot be ignored.
  • Industries are responsible for four types of pollution  
    • Air Pollution
    • Water Pollution
    • Land Pollution
    • Noise Pollution
  • The polluting industries also include thermal power plants .

Air Pollution:

  • Air pollution is caused by the high proportion of undesirable gases , such as sulphur dioxide and monoxide .
  • Air-borne particulate materials contain both solid and liquid particles like dust, sprays mist and smoke .
  • Smoke is emitted by chemical and paper factories , brick kilns , refineries and melting plants , and the burning of fossil fuels in big and small factories that ignore pollution norms.
  • Toxic gas leaks can be very hazardous with long-term effects.
  • Air pollution adversely affects human health , animals, plants, buildings and the atmosphere as a whole.

Water Pollution:

  • Water pollution is caused by organic and inorganic industrial wastes discharged into rivers .
  • Industries mainly responsible for water pollution are:
    • Paper , pulp , chemical , textile and dyeing industries let out dyes , detergents , acids , and salts .
    • Petroleum refineries , tanneries and electroplating industries let out heavy metals like lead and mercury pesticides , fertilisers , synthetic chemicals with carbon , plastics and rubber , etc.
  • In India, fly ash , phosphor-gypsum and iron and steel slags are the major solid wastes.

Thermal Pollution:

  • Thermal pollution of water occurs when hot water from factories and thermal plants is drained into water bodies like rivers and ponds before cooling.
  • Cancers , birth defects and miscarriages are caused by wastes from nuclear power plants , and nuclear and weapon production facilities.
  • Soil and water are closely related to each other.
  • For example,
    • Dumping wastes like glass , packaging , salts , harmful chemical , industrial effluents and garbage make the soil useless.
    • Rainwater percolates (drains) into the soil carrying pollutants to the ground and the groundwater also gets contaminated .

Noise Pollution:

  • Noise pollution causes:
    • Irritation and anger
    • Hearing impairment
    • Increases heart rate and blood pressure and
    • Some other physiological effects
  • Unwanted sources of noise are not only irritant but also cause stress .
  • Other sources of noise pollution are:
    • Industrial and construction activities
    • Machinery
    • Factory equipment
    • Generators
    • Saws
    • pneumatic and electric drills

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Davneet Singh

Davneet Singh has done his B.Tech from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He has been teaching from the past 13 years. He provides courses for Maths, Science, Social Science, Physics, Chemistry, Computer Science at Teachoo.