- Industries that use minerals and metals as raw materials are called mineral-based industries.
Iron and Steel Industry
- The iron and steel industry is the basic industry since all the other industries — heavy, medium and light , depend on it for their machinery .
- Steel is needed to manufacture a variety of engineering goods , construction materials , defence , medical , telephonic , scientific equipment and some consumer goods .
- Production and consumption of steel are often regarded as the index of a country’s development .
- Iron and steel is a heavy industry because all the raw materials , as well as finished goods , are heavy and bulky entailing heavy transportation costs .
- Iron ore , cooking coal and limestone are required in a ratio of approximately 4: 2: 1.
- Some quantities of manganese , are also required to harden the steel .
- The finished products also need an efficient transport network for their distribution to the markets and consumers.
- Chhotanagpur plateau region has the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries . It is largely, because of the relative advantages this region has for the development of this industry.
- These include:
- the low cost of iron ore,
- high-grade raw materials
- cheap labour
- growth potential in the home market.
- Aluminium smelting is the second most important metallurgical industry in India.
- It is light , resistant to corrosion , a good conductor of heat , malleable and becomes strong when it is mixed with other metals . It is used to manufacture aircraft , utensils and wires .
- It has gained popularity as a substitute for steel , copper , zinc and lead in some industries.
- In India, Aluminium smelting plants are located in Odisha , West Bengal , Kerala , Uttar Pradesh , Chhattisgarh , Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu .
- A regular supply of electricity and an assured source of raw material at minimum cost are the two prime factors for the location of the industry.
- The raw material used in the smelters, Bauxite , is a very bulky, dark reddish-coloured rock .
- The Chemical industry in India comprises both large and small-scale manufacturing units. Rapid growth has been recorded in both inorganic and organic sectors
which is used to manufacture:
- synthetic fibres
- dyes stuff
- sulphuric acid which is used to manufacture:
- nitric acid
- caustic soda
which is used to make
- These industries are widely spread over the country .
which are used in the manufacturing of:
- synthetic rubber
- synthetic fibres
- Petrochemicals which are used in the manufacturing of:
- Organic chemical plants are located near oil refineries or petrochemical plants .
- The chemical industry is its own largest consumer . Basic chemicals undergo processing to produce other chemicals that are used for industrial application , agriculture or directly for the consumer market .
The fertilizer industry produces
ammonium phosphate (DAP)
and complex fertilizers which have a combination of
- The third, i.e. potash is entirely imported as the country does not have any reserves of commercially usable potash or potassium compounds in any form.
- After the Green Revolution , the industry expanded to several other parts of the country. Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Kerala contribute towards half of the fertilizer production.
Other significant producers are
- Andhra Pradesh
- West Bengal
- Madhya Pradesh
- Cement is essential for construction activities such as building houses , factories , bridges , roads , airports , dams and for other commercial establishments.
- This industry requires bulky and heavy raw materials like limestone , silica and gypsum . Coal and electric power are needed apart from rail transportation .
- The industry has plants in Gujarat that have suitable access to the market in the Gulf countries .
- The first cement plant was set up in Chennai in 1904 . After Independence, the industry expanded.
- The automobile industry provides vehicles for the quick transportation of passengers and goods .
- In India, trucks , scooters , buses , cars, motorcycles, three-wheelers and multi-utility vehicles are manufactured at various centres.
- After the liberalisation , the coming in of new models stimulated (increased) the demand for vehicles in the market which led to the growth of the industry including passenger cars , and two and three-wheelers .
The industry is located around
Information Technology and Electronics Industry
- The electronics industry covers a wide range of products like
- transistor sets
- cellular telecom
- telephone exchange
- computers and other equipment required by the telecommunication industry.
- Bengaluru has emerged as the electronic capital of India.
- Other important centres are
- Coimbatore , Tamil Nadu
- The major industry concentration is in
- A significant impact of this industry has been on employment generation .
- The continuing growth in hardware and software is the key to the success of the IT industry in India.