Mineral-based Industries

  • Industries that use minerals and metals as raw materials are called mineral-based industries.

Iron and Steel Industry

  • The iron and steel industry is the basic industry since all the other industries — heavy, medium and light , depend on it for their machinery
  • Steel is needed to manufacture a variety of engineering goods , construction materials , defence , medical , telephonic , scientific equipment and some consumer goods .
  • Production and consumption of steel are often regarded as the index of a country’s development
  • Iron and steel is a heavy industry because all the raw materials , as well as finished goods , are heavy and bulky entailing heavy transportation costs .
  • Iron ore , cooking coal and limestone are required in a ratio of approximately 4: 2: 1.  
  • Some quantities of manganese , are also required to harden the steel
  • The finished products also need an efficient transport network for their distribution to the markets and consumers.
  • Chhotanagpur plateau region has the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries . It is largely, because of the relative advantages this region has for the development of this industry. 
  • These include:
    • the low cost of iron ore, 
    • high-grade raw materials  
    • cheap labour  
    • growth potential in the home market. 

Aluminium Smelting

  • Aluminium smelting is the second most important metallurgical industry in India.
  • It is light , resistant to corrosion , a good conductor of heat , malleable and becomes strong when it is mixed with other metals . It is used to manufacture aircraft , utensils and wires .
  • It has gained popularity as a substitute for steel , copper , zinc and lead in some industries.
  • In India, Aluminium smelting plants are located in Odisha , West Bengal , Kerala , Uttar Pradesh , Chhattisgarh , Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu .
  • A regular supply of electricity and an assured source of raw material at minimum cost are the two prime factors for the location of the industry.
  • The raw material used in the smelters, Bauxite , is a very bulky, dark reddish-coloured rock .

Chemical Industries

  • The Chemical industry in India comprises both large and small-scale manufacturing units. Rapid growth has been recorded in both inorganic and organic sectors
  • The inorganic industry includes
    • sulphuric acid which is used to manufacture:
      • Fertilisers
      • synthetic fibres
      • Plastics
      • Adhesives
      • Paints
      • dyes stuff 
  • nitric acid
  • alkalis 
  • caustic soda
  • soda ash which is used to make 
      • Glass
      • Soaps
      • Papers
      • detergents 
  • These industries are widely spread over the country .
  • Organic Chemicals includes
    • Petrochemicals which are used in the manufacturing of:
      • synthetic rubber
      • synthetic fibres  
      • Plastics
      • Dye-stuffs
      • Drugs
      • pharmaceuticals
  • Organic chemical plants are located near oil refineries or petrochemical plants .
  • The chemical industry is its own largest consumer . Basic chemicals undergo processing to produce other chemicals that are used for industrial application , agriculture or directly for the consumer market .

Fertilizer Industry

  • The fertilizer industry produces nitrogenous fertilizers (mainly urea), phosphatic fertilizers and ammonium phosphate (DAP) and complex fertilizers which have a combination of nitrogen (N), phosphate (P), and potash (K).  
    • The third, i.e. potash is entirely imported as the country does not have any reserves of commercially usable potash or potassium compounds in any form. 
  • After the Green Revolution , the industry expanded to several other parts of the country. Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Kerala contribute towards half of the fertilizer production.
  • Other significant producers are 
    • Andhra Pradesh
    • Odisha
    • Rajasthan
    • Bihar
    • Maharashtra
    • Assam
    • West Bengal
    • Goa
    • Delhi
    • Madhya Pradesh
    • Karnataka

Cement Industry

  • Cement is essential for construction activities such as building houses , factories , bridges , roads , airports , dams and for other commercial establishments. 
  • This industry requires bulky and heavy raw materials like limestone , silica and gypsum . Coal and electric power are needed apart from rail transportation .
  • The industry has plants in Gujarat that have suitable access to the market in the Gulf countries .
  • The first cement plant was set up in Chennai in 1904 . After Independence, the industry expanded. 

Automobile Industry

  • The automobile industry provides vehicles for the quick transportation of passengers and goods .
  • In India, trucks , scooters , buses , cars, motorcycles, three-wheelers and multi-utility vehicles are manufactured at various centres.
  • After the liberalisation , the coming in of new models stimulated (increased) the demand for vehicles in the market which led to the growth of the industry including passenger cars , and two and three-wheelers .
  • The industry is located around 
    • Delhi
    • Gurugram
    • Mumbai 
    • Pune
    • Chennai
    • Kolkata
    • Lucknow
    • Indore
    • Hyderabad
    • Jamshedpur 
    • Bengaluru

Information Technology and Electronics Industry

  • The electronics industry covers a wide range of products like 
    • transistor sets 
    • television
    • telephones
    • cellular telecom
    • telephone exchange
    • Radars
    • computers and other equipment required by the telecommunication industry.
  • Bengaluru has emerged as the electronic capital of India.
  • Other important centres are 
    • Mumbai  
    • Delhi
    • Hyderabad  
    • Pune
    • Chennai  
    • Kolkata
    • Lucknow
    • Coimbatore , Tamil Nadu
  • The major industry concentration is in 
    • Bengaluru 
    • Noida
    • Mumbai 
    • Chennai 
    • Hyderabad
    • Pune
  • A significant impact of this industry has been on employment generation
  • The continuing growth in hardware and software is the key to the success of the IT industry in India.

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Davneet Singh

Davneet Singh has done his B.Tech from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He has been teaching from the past 13 years. He provides courses for Maths, Science, Social Science, Physics, Chemistry, Computer Science at Teachoo.