Among Organs Of The Govt.- 

Horizontal division of power - Teachoo.png

  1. When the power is shared among different organs of the govt- that is, the legislature, executive, and judiciary, it is called a horizontal distribution of power.
  2. Horizontal because- allows different organs placed at the same level to exercise different powers. 
  3. This separation is important to ensure that none of the organs exercise unlimited power. Each organ checks the other.
  4. For example- the judges are appointed by the executive, they can still check the functioning of the executive or laws formed by the legislature . This cross-check arrangement is also called- a system of checks and balances.

Among Different Levels Of The Govt:-

Vertical division of power - Teachoo.png

  1.   When the power is divided among the government existing at various levels in a hierarchical form, it is called a vertical division of power.

Among Different Social Groups:-

  1. The distribution of power among different social groups such as the religious or linguistic groups is practiced to avoid cultural conflicts and ensures harmony among these groups.
  2. Constitutional and legal arrangements to empower weaker sections in many countries are represented in the legislature and administrations.
  3. Many nations have representatives in their legislatures and executive branches that support constitutional and legal provisions that give power to weaker groups.

Reason- Diverse social groups who might otherwise feel cut off from government are intended to be given a place in the administration and government through this kind of structure. Giving minority communities a fair share of power is done using this strategy.

Among Political Parties, Pressure Groups, And Movements:-

  1. Arrangements for power sharing are also evident in the way political parties, pressure groups, and movements affect or control those in power.
  2. Different political parties belonging to different social groups and ideologies necessitate the need for power sharing to function effectively.
  3. When two or more parties create an alliance to run in elections, this type of sharing can occasionally be direct. They establish a coalition government and share power if their alliance wins an election.
  4. Finally, power may also be shared among different interest groups such as traders, businessmen, industrialists, farmers, and industrial workers- these groups hold a significant stake in the govt either through-
    1. Continuous participation in the govt committees.
    2. Creating impact in the decision-making process.
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Davneet Singh

Davneet Singh has done his B.Tech from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He has been teaching from the past 14 years. He provides courses for Maths, Science, Social Science, Physics, Chemistry, Computer Science at Teachoo.