Among Organs Of The Govt.-
- When the power is shared among different organs of the govt- that is, the legislature, executive, and judiciary, it is called a horizontal distribution of power.
- Horizontal because- allows different organs placed at the same level to exercise different powers.
- This separation is important to ensure that none of the organs exercise unlimited power. Each organ checks the other.
- For example- the judges are appointed by the executive, they can still check the functioning of the executive or laws formed by the legislature . This cross-check arrangement is also called- a system of checks and balances.
Among Different Levels Of The Govt:-
- When the power is divided among the government existing at various levels in a hierarchical form, it is called a vertical division of power.
Among Different Social Groups:-
- The distribution of power among different social groups such as the religious or linguistic groups is practiced to avoid cultural conflicts and ensures harmony among these groups.
- Constitutional and legal arrangements to empower weaker sections in many countries are represented in the legislature and administrations.
- Many nations have representatives in their legislatures and executive branches that support constitutional and legal provisions that give power to weaker groups.
Reason- Diverse social groups who might otherwise feel cut off from government are intended to be given a place in the administration and government through this kind of structure. Giving minority communities a fair share of power is done using this strategy.
Among Political Parties, Pressure Groups, And Movements:-
- Arrangements for power sharing are also evident in the way political parties, pressure groups, and movements affect or control those in power.
- Different political parties belonging to different social groups and ideologies necessitate the need for power sharing to function effectively.
- When two or more parties create an alliance to run in elections, this type of sharing can occasionally be direct. They establish a coalition government and share power if their alliance wins an election.
- Finally, power may also be shared among different interest groups such as traders, businessmen, industrialists, farmers, and industrial workers- these groups hold a significant stake in the govt either through-
- Continuous participation in the govt committees.
- Creating impact in the decision-making process.