What is Demography?

It is the study of Human Population

In this, we study statistics like birth rate,death rate, Literacy level, Life expectancy etc

DEMOGRAPHY AND DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION - Teachoo.JPG

What are Different Stages of Demographic Transition?

Stage No. 

Stage Name

Description 

Stage 1

Preindustrial Stage

Death Rate and Birth Rate both were very high, Population Growth was slow

Stage 2

Industrializing Stage

Death Rate declines due to improvement in the food supply, sanitation. The birth Rate remains high, so the population grows fast

Stage 3

Mature Industrial Stage

Birth Rate also falls and the population starts to level off

Stage 4

Post Industrial Stage

Low Birth and Death Rate, Population may start to decline

There are 4 stages of Demogaphic Transition:

Stage No Stage Name Description

Stage 1 Preindustrial Stage Death Rates and Birth Rate both Very High, Population Growth was Slow

Stage 2 Industrializing Stage Death Rates decline due to Improvement in Food Supply,Sanitation. Birth Rate remains High, so Population Grows Fast

Stage 3 Mature Industrial Stage Birth Rate also falls and Population becomes to level off

Stage 4 Post Industrial Stage Low Birth and Death Rates, Population may start to decline

 

Different Stages of Demographic Transition During British Rule - Teachoo.JPG

India was in Which Stage during British Rule?

Census was started from 1881 onwards to keep record of Demography of India

There on, it was conducted every 10 years

 

Before 1921

India was in First Stage of Demographic Transition

Death Rates and Birth Rate both Very High, Population Growth was Slow

Total Population as well as rate of growth of Population was not very high

 

After 1921

India entered Second Stage of Demogaphic Transition

Death Rates declined due to Improvement in Food Supply,Sanitation.

Birth Rate remained High,so Population Grew Fast

Year 1921 was called the 'Year of Great Divide'

Because, before this year India was in the 1st stage of demographic transition

And after this year, India entered the 2nd stage of demographic transition

 

What were the various social economic indicators during British Rule?

Literacy level

 

It means percentage of population which can read or write

Literacy level was very low during British Rule (Around 16% )

Female Literacy level was even lower at 7%

 

Mortality Rate(Death Rate)

 

It means number of deaths in a given population during a period of time

Death rate was very high at nearly 40 per 1000.

Infant Mortality Rate was very high especially infant mortality rate (around 218 per 1000)

It refers to the number of children that die before reaching the age of 1 year per 1000 births in an year.

This was because public health facilities were not available to population and there were lot of water, airborne disease

 

Life expectancy

 

It means number of year a person was expected to live

Life expectancy was very low around 44 years (Currently it is 69 years)

 

Poverty

 

It mean state of not having income to meet basic needs

 

There was extensive poverty in India during British Rule

However, no reliable data was measured aboout extent of poverty
Social Economic Indicators During British Rule - Teachoo.JPG





NCERT Questions

Q10

Which is regarded as the defining year to mark the demographic transition from its first to the second decisive stage?

View Answer

Q11

Give a quantitative appraisal of India’s demographic profile during the colonial period.\

View Answer

Q14

When was India’s first official census operation undertaken?

View Answer

MCQ Other Books

Q1

In the following questions, select the correct answers:

The 1st official census was conducted in the year _____.

A 1891

B 1921

C 1781

D 1881

View Answer

Q2

Which year is described as a "Year of Great Divide"?

A 1850

B 1881

C 1921

D 1911

View Answer

Q3

Identify the statement which is not correct in context of demographic condition of India during British rule:

A High Birth Rate

B Low Death Rate

C Low Infant Mortality Rate

D High Literacy Rate

View Answer

Q4

From 1881 onwards, census operations in India were carried out every _____ years.

A 5

B 10

C 15

D 20

View Answer

 

Q5

India entered the _________________ stage of Demographic Transition after the year 1921.

A forth

B second

C third

D first [CBSE SQP 2021]

View Answer
  1. Class 12 NCERT
  2. Indian Economic Development

Transcript

DEMOGRAPHY AND DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION What is Demography It is the Study of Human Population Here we measure Human Statistics like Birth Rate (Number of live Births per 1000 Population Mortality Rate(Death Rate) (Number of Deaths per 1000 Population) Literacy Level (Percentage of Population who can Read and Write) Life expectancy (Number of year a person is expected to live) Poverty It mean state of not having income to meet basic needs) These Human Statistics Change over a period of time This is called Demographic Transition Demographic Transition Human Population Changes What is Demographic Transition? It is the change in Human Population Statistics over a period of time like Birth Rate, Death Rate etc Different Stages of Demographic Transition During British Rule Stage No Name Birth Rate Preindustrial Stage High (Lack of Birth Control Measures, Lack of Education) (Due to diseases) Industrializing Stage (Lack of Birth Control Measures, Lack of Education) (Advancement of Medicine) Fast India in this stage From 1921 till Independence Mature Industrial Stage (Some Birth Control Measures, Women Education) (Advancement of Medicine) Level (High Birth Control Measures, People's Choice) (Advancement of Medicine) Social Economic Indicators During British Rule Literacy Level (Percentage of Population who can Read and Write) Mortality Rate (Death Rate) (Number of Deaths in Given Population during a period of time) Life expectancy (Number of year a person was expected to live) Poverty It mean state of not having income to meet basic needs) Very Low 16% Overall 7% for Women Very High 218 per 1000 (Infant Mortality Rate) Very Low 44 Years Average Life Very High No Reliable Data was Measured

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CA Maninder Singh
CA Maninder Singh is a Chartered Accountant for the past 10 years. He also provides Accounts Tax GST Training in Delhi and Pune.