Indian Remained Agrarian Country
(85% of People depended on Agricuture)
Population During  British Rule - Teachoo.JPG


Agriculture productivity was low due to

  • Lack of Irrigation Facility
  • Very Less use of Fertilizers
  • Low Level of Technology

In Absolute Terms,there was some Agriculture Growth due to more area coming under agriculture

How to Increase Agricultural Production - Teachoo.JPG

 

Agriculture Sector During British Rule - Teachoo.JPG

Britishers Introduced different systems of Land Settlement like Zamindari System where:

  • Zamindars collected Rent from Farmers and paid Revenue (tax) to the British Govt
  • Profits of cultivation went to Zamindars and not cultivators
  • Terms Of Revenue Settlement were strict, amount of tax and date when amt was to be collected was fixed

Zamindari System of Land Settlement - Teachoo.JPG

Problems with Zamindari System - Teachoo.JPG

Commercialization of Agriculture

In some areas,People started growing more cash crops or commercial crops instead of food crops

(Cash crops are grops grown for profit instead of use by farmer. Example Tobaccoo,Coffee)

These cash crops were used as raw material for British countries

However,majoriy of farmers did not have resources, technology and incentive for doing this

Crops Grown Before and During British Rule - Teachoo.JPG

Commercialization of Agriculture - Teachoo.JPG

Summary - Teachoo.JPG

NCERT Questions

Q3

What were the main causes of India’s agricultural stagnation during the colonial period?

View Answer

 

MCQ Other Books

Q1

In the following questions, select the correct answers:

The main reason for stagnation in the agricultural sector during British rule was:

A Land settlement system

B De-industrialisation

C Lack of technology

D Commercialization of Agriculture

View Answer
  1. Class 12 NCERT
  2. Indian Economic Development

Transcript

Population During British Rule Villages 85% Population Mostly Dependent on Agriculture India was an Agrarian Country Cities 15% Population Dependent on Industry and Service How to Increase Agricultural Production Better Irrigation Facilities Use Fertilizers Use Latest Technologies Cut Trees To Increase Farm Area In British Rule Agricultural Productivity was low, but still there was some growth due to more area brought under cultivation What did Britishers do? This not done to increase Agricultural Productivity This done to Increase Agriculture production Agriculture Sector During British Rule Agriculture Productivity It is the Production Per unit of land During British Rule This Remained Low due to Lack of Irrigation Lack of Fertilizers Lack of New Technology Agriculture Output It is the Overall Agricultural Production of Whole Economy During British Rule There was little Growth due to More Area came under Cultivation (Forests cut for Growing Crops) Agricultural Productivity was low, but still there was some growth due to more area under cultivation Zamindari System of Land Settlement How did Britishers collected Tax from India on Agriculture -LAGAAN Farmer (They worked on land) Paid Rent Zamindar (They Owned land) Paid Revenue (Tax) Britishers (They collected tax) Strict Rules for Rent Collection (Even in Low Produce Full Rent to be Paid) Strict Rules for Tax Collection (Amt of tax and Date of tax Fixed ) Problems with Zamindari System Farmer (They worked on land) Paid Rent Zamindar (They Owned land) Paid Revenue (Tax) Britishers (They collected tax) They got good tax Revenue For British Empire In case of Bad Crop Still got full tax More concerned with Filling British coffers No interest in helping Indian farmer Crops Grown Before and During British Rule Cash Crops Crops Grown for Profit Food Crops Crops Grown for consumption as Food Coffee Wheat Tobacco Rice Before British Rule  During British Rule  These not grown These were grown in some areas (This is called Commercialization Of Agriculture)These were Grown These were grown in all other areas (Farmers did not have resources to grow Cash Crops in these areas) Commercialisation of AgricultureCommercial Use (Sale) Growing of Crops It means Growing of Crops for Commercial Use or Sale Before British Rule Crops Grown for Consumption in Village (No commercialization) Only Food Crops Grown No cash crops No Export of Agricultural Goods During British Rule Crops Grown for Sale in National/international Markets (Commercialization of Agriculture Started) Cash Crops Also Grown in some areas They were used as Raw Material for British Factories Agricultural goods began to be exported SUMMARY Indian Agriculture During British Rule Agricultural Productivity was low But Agricultural Output Increased Zamindari System introduced Commercialization of Agriculture Majority of Farmers still grew Food crops Not much improvement in Irrigation, Fertilizers , Modern Technology Trees Cut to Increase Area under Cultivation Owner and Cultivator were Different Farmers paid Rent to Zamindars who paid tax to Govt Cash Crops Grown Used as Raw Material for British Factories No technology, Resources, Incentive to change cropping pattern, improve agriculture

About the Author

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CA Maninder Singh
CA Maninder Singh is a Chartered Accountant for the past 10 years. He also provides Accounts Tax GST Training in Delhi and Pune.