• Culture consists of ideas, beliefs, customs , art , religions, music and dance.  
  • It is the shared knowledge, values, attitudes, and behaviors that characterize a particular group or society.
  • Cultural beliefs shape the way people perceive the world and guide their actions.
  • Cultural customs are the t raditional practices and behaviors that are passed down through generations.


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  • Festivals are s pecial occasions or events that are celebrated with joy and enthusiasm. 
  • They often have cultural, religious, or seasonal significance and bring communities together.
  • Festivals are an integral part of our cultural heritag e, providing opportunities for celebration, reflection, and connection with our roots. 

Types of Festivals

  • Religious Festivals : Celebrated to honor and commemorate religious figures, deities, or significant events. Examples include Diwali, Christmas, Eid, and Guru Nanak Jayanti.
  • Seasonal Festivals : Linked to the changing seasons and agricultural cycles. Examples include Baisakhi, Pongal, Basant Panchami, and Onam.
  • National Festivals: Celebrated throughout the country to commemorate important national events like Independence Day and Republic Day.

Significance of Festivals

  • Cultural Preservation: Festivals play a vital role in preserving and passing on cultural traditions, customs, and rituals from one generation to another.
  • Community Bonding : Festivals bring people together, fostering a sense of unity, belonging, and social cohesion within communities.
  • Expressions of Joy and Gratitude : Festivals provide an opportunity for individuals to express joy, gratitude, and devotion through rituals, prayers, music, dance, and feasting.

Dance and Music

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  • Classical Dance : India has two major types of classical dances - Bharatanatyam (Tamil Nadu), Kathakali (Kerala), Kathak (North India), Kuchipudi (Andhra Pradesh and Telangana), Manipuri (Manipur), and Odissi (Odisha).
    • Most of these dances tell depict stories from our epics , the Ramayana and the Mahabharata .
  • Folk Dance : Folk dances are based on seasonal themes and often depict stories from epics like the Ramayana and Mahabharata. Examples include Bhangra (Punjab), Garba (Gujarat), Chhau (Jharkhand and Odisha), Ghoomar (Rajasthan), Lavani (Maharashtra), and Bihu (Assam).


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  • There are two mains schools of classical Music
    • North Indian Classical Music (Hindustani) : Hindustani classical music is one of the main schools of Indian classical music. It has a rich tradition and is characterized by ragas, talas, and improvisation.
    • South Indian Classical Music (Carnatic): Carnatic classical music is the other main school of Indian classical music. It has its roots in the ancient scriptures and is known for its intricate melodies and rhythmic patterns.
  • Gharana Tradition: In Indian classical music, the gharana tradition refers to the lineage or style of a particular musical family or school. Students learn music from a guru by living in their house.
  • Indian Folk Music comprises of traditional songs that are performed during festive occasions and wedding ceremonies.

Art and Sculpture

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  • The cave paintings at Ajanta and Ellora in Maharashtra represent the earliest form of art influenced by the teachings of the Buddha .
  • Miniature art can be observed in Pahari , Rajput , and Mughal paintings. Skilled craftsmen of the past constructed magnificent monuments and places of worship.
  • Emperor Ashoka commissioned the construction of the stupas in Sanchi , while Shah Jahan is credited with the creation of the Taj Mahal , which is now recognized as one of the wonders of the world.
  • Numerous renowned monuments and buildings contribute to our rich cultural heritage.


  • Depending on the terrain , weather and time of year , different types of crops , vegetables and fruits are cultivated in our country. 
  • We also grow spices like chillies , turmeric , pepper , cardamom and cloves
  • Our country is famous for its sweets such as rasogullas , shrikhand , payasam and ladoos .


  • The clothes of the people of an area is influenced by the land and climate . Some areas have thick forests and some are near the sea . Some areas have extreme seasons and some have uniform climate .
  • The common dresses in our country are:
    • salwar-kameez with a dupatta in Punjab
    • ghaghara-kurta with an odhni in Haryana
    • ghaghara-katchli in Rajasthan
    • lehenga-choli in Gujarat
    • mundu-blouse in Kerala
  • Men usually wear trousers and shirts . Other dresses for men are:
    • Pyjama-kurta , dhoti-kurta , lungi-kurta or lungi-shirt
    • churidar-kurta with an achkan or angarakha in Rajasthan
    • churidar with a jacket in Gujarat
    • In Tamil Nadu, men’s lungis are called veshti
    • In Kerala, they are called mundu
    • Men in West Bengal and Assam mostly wear dhoti-kurtas
  • In the hilly regions, due to the cold, the Kashmiris wear a long woollen kurta called a phiran
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Davneet Singh's photo - Co-founder, Teachoo

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Davneet Singh

Davneet Singh has done his B.Tech from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He has been teaching from the past 14 years. He provides courses for Maths, Science, Social Science, Physics, Chemistry, Computer Science at Teachoo.