Check sibling questions

Make two lists: one with the main events and the effects of the February Revolution and the other with the main events and effects of the October Revolution. Write a paragraph on who was involved in each, who were the leaders and what was the impact of each on Soviet history. 


Answer to be written

February Revolution:

  • Events
    • On 22 February , a lockout took place at a factory on the right bank.
    • Next day, workers in fifty factories called a strike in sympathy. In many factories, women led the way to strikes . This came to be called International Women’s Day .
    • On Sunday , 25 February , the government suspended the Duma
    • On 26th February, demonstrators returned in force to the streets of the left bank.
    • On the 27th , the Police Headquarters was ransacked (looted).
    • The government called out the cavalry to try to control the situation but the cavalry refused to fire on the demonstrators and joined the demonstrating workers .
    • Soldiers and striking workers had gathered to form a ‘soviet’ or ‘council’. This was the Petrograd Soviet
    • Tsar abdicated ( quit ) on the advice of his military general on 2nd March.
    • Soviet leaders and Duma leaders formed a Provisional Government to run the country.
  • Effects
    • Army officials , landowners and industrialists became influential in the Provisional Government.
    • Restrictions on public meetings and associations were removed
    • ‘Soviets’ , like the Petrograd Soviet, were set up everywhere, though no common system of election was followed.
    • The land was transferred to the peasants , and banks are nationalised by Lenin.
    • Trade unions grew in number.
    • Soldiers’ committees were formed in the army .

October Revolution

  • Events
    • In September , Lenin began discussions for an uprising against the government .
    • Bolshevik supporters in the army , soviets and factories were brought together .
    • On 16 October 1917, Lenin persuaded the Petrograd Soviet and the Bolshevik Party to agree to a socialist seizure of power
    • Soviets appointed a Military Revolutionary Committee under Leon Trotskii to organise the seizure .
    • On 24 October, the uprising began.  
    • At dawn, military men loyal to the government seized the buildings of two Bolshevik newspapers
    • Pro-government troops were sent to take over telephone and telegraph offices and protect the Winter Palace
    • In a swift response, the Military Revolutionary Committee ordered its supporters to seize government offices and arrest ministers .
    • By nightfall, the city was under the committee’s control and the ministers had surrendered
  • Effects
    • Most industries and banks were nationalised in November 1917 . This meant that the government took over ownership and management
    • The land was declared social property and peasants were allowed to seize the land of the nobility .
    • They banned the use of the old titles of the aristocracy
    • To assert the change , new uniforms were designed for the army and officials .
    • The Bolshevik Party was renamed the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik)
    • In November 1917 , the Bolsheviks conducted the elections to the Constituent Assembly , but they failed to gain majority support .
    • In January 1918 , the Assembly rejected Bolshevik measures and Lenin dismissed the Assembly .

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Davneet Singh has done his B.Tech from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He has been teaching from the past 13 years. He provides courses for Maths, Science, Social Science, Physics, Chemistry, Computer Science at Teachoo.