Why was collectivism implemented in Soviet Russia, and what happened after it was implemented?
Answer to written
- By 1927- 1928 , the towns in Soviet Russia were facing an acute problem with grain supplies . One of the reasons for the shortage of grain supply was the small size of land holdings. So, Stalin introduced collectivism and forced peasants to cultivate in collective farms ( kolkhoz ). Peasants worked on the land , and the kolkhoz profit was shared .
- Enraged peasants resisted the authorities and destroyed their livestock . Between 1929 and 1931 , the number of cattle fell by one-third . Those who resisted collectivisation were severely punished . Many were deported and exiled .
- Despite collectivisation, production did not increase immediately.
- The bad harvests of 1930-1933 led to one of the most devastating famines in Soviet history when over 4 million died .
- Many within the Party criticised the confusion in industrial production under the Planned Economy and the consequences of collectivisation . Stalin and his sympathisers charged these critics with conspiracy against socialism .
- Accusations were made throughout the country, and by 1939 , over 2 million were in prisons or labour camps . Most were innocent of the crimes , but no one spoke for them . A large number were forced to make false confessions under torture and were executed – several among them were talented professionals.