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In different animals the sex of the progeny is determined in diferent ways ;

  • After fertilization, in some animals, the temperature at which the eggs are kept determines the sex of the progeny.
    For Example - Turtles, Alligators, Crocodiles
    Thus in such animals, sex is determined by environmental conditions


  •   Snails , on the other hand, can change their sex .
    This means that in snails, gender is not genetically determined
  • In case of human beings ;
    Human beings give birth to male and female children due to genetic reasons.
    • Human beings have 23 pairs of chromosomes.
    • This makes a total of 46 chromosomes.
    • Out of the 23 pairs, 22 pairs (44 chromosomes) have a copy from the mother and father each .
    • But 1 pair called the sex chromosome , is not always paired perfectly.
      • Women have a perfect pair - both are X - XX (Egg)
      • Men have one normal sized X chromosome and another short chromosome called Y chromosome - XY (Sperm)


  • So,


  • This means that there is a 50% chance that the child is a male or female.
  • Though the sex is determined by which gene is inherited from the father , the process in completely by chance and the probability of the child being male or female is equal.



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Maninder Singh

CA Maninder Singh is a Chartered Accountant for the past 13 years and a teacher from the past 17 years. He teaches Science, Economics, Accounting and English at Teachoo