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  • DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid .
  • DNA has a ladder-like structure arranged in a spiral thus called double-helix structure. 
  • It carries genetic information . That means that it has all the information and instructions that a living organism requires to grow, reproduce and function.
  • Each cell contains chromosomes which are made of protein and a single molecule of DNA. 



  • Gene is a segment of a DNA molecule .
  • It carries the information that determines your traits .
  • This information codes for proteins that display these traits.
  • A gene is the basic unit of heredity in a living organism.


Contribution of genes during reproduction

  • As discussed in the previous section, in sexually reproducing organisms , both the parents contribute genetic material to the child equally
  • This means that the traits in the child can resemble either parent equally .
  • So we can say that for each trait in the child, there are two versions (one from each parent).

Example : If the mother has blue eyes and the father has brown eyes, the chance is that the child can have either blue or brown eyes.

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Maninder Singh

CA Maninder Singh is a Chartered Accountant for the past 13 years and a teacher from the past 17 years. He teaches Science, Economics, Accounting and English at Teachoo