- DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid .
- DNA has a ladder-like structure arranged in a spiral thus called double-helix structure.
- It carries genetic information . That means that it has all the information and instructions that a living organism requires to grow, reproduce and function.
- Each cell contains chromosomes which are made of protein and a single molecule of DNA.
- Gene is a segment of a DNA molecule .
- It carries the information that determines your traits .
- This information codes for proteins that display these traits.
- A gene is the basic unit of heredity in a living organism.
Contribution of genes during reproduction
- As discussed in the previous section, in sexually reproducing organisms , both the parents contribute genetic material to the child equally .
- This means that the traits in the child can resemble either parent equally .
- So we can say that for each trait in the child, there are two versions (one from each parent).
Example : If the mother has blue eyes and the father has brown eyes, the chance is that the child can have either blue or brown eyes.