What Measures were taken by Govt to Improve Agriculture between 1950-90?

Before Independence, there was neither growth nor equity in Agricultural Sector

Govt changed it by doing the following:


Land Reforms

Before Independence,there was Zamindari System in India where Zamindars were the owner of land who collected

rent from cultivators

Govt abolished this law and made the Cultivator as legal owner of land

Hence,there was now incentive with Cultivators to make improvement in agriculture (as now they will get profits directly)

WHAT WERE LAND REFORMS - Teachoo.JPG

Land Ceiling

Govt fixed maximum size of land which could be owned by an individual

The purpose of this was to reduce concentration of land holding in few hands

WHAT WAS LAND CEILING - Teachoo.JPG

Green Revolution

Earlier, India had to import food grains from countries like USA

Government launched Green Revolution in Mid 1960'S to make India Self sufficient in food production

Government ask farmers to grow HYV Seeds (High Yielding Variety Seeds)

These seeds required the use of Pesticides and Proper Water Supply

Govt gave necessary infrastructure in forms of dams (for irrigation) and fertilizer industries to supply fertilizers

This led to increase in production and Increase in Marketed Surplus (produce which is sold in market is called

Marketed surplus)

At time of Independence - Teachoo.JPG

 

Govt took following steps:

Government asked farmers to use HYV Seeds (High Yielding Variety Seeds)

These seeds required the use of Pesticides and Proper Water Supply

Govt gave necessary infrastructure in forms of dams (for irrigation) and fertilizer industries to supply fertilizers

 

This Revolution was launched in 2 phases

First Phase (mid 1960-ID 1970) - Launched in Punjab, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu

Second Phase (Mid 1970 to Mid 1980)-Launched in Other States like UP,MP etc

This led to increase in production

Green Revolution - Teachoo.JPG

How Green Revolution Carried  Out -Teachoo.JPG

Increase in Marketable Surplus - Teachoo.JPG

Write a short note on Green Revolution

Meaning

It means large increase in agricultural Production

It was achieved by using high yielding variety of seeds, fertilizers and better irrigation techniques

 

When Carried Out?

This Revolution was launched in 2 phases

First Phase (mid 1960 - mid 1970) - Launched in Punjab, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu

Second Phase (Mid 1970 to Mid 1980)-Launched in Other States like UP,MP etc

 

 

Why Carried out?

Earlier, India had to import food grains from countries like USA

Government launched Green Revolution in Mid 1960'S to make India Self sufficient in food

 

How Carried out?

Government asked farmers to use HYV Seeds (High Yielding Variety Seeds)

These seeds required the use of Pesticides and Proper Water Supply

Govt gave necessary infrastructure in forms of dams (for irrigation) and fertilizer industries to supply fertilizers

 

 

Effects of Green Revolution

This led to increase in production and Increase in Marketed Surplus (produce which is sold in market is called

Marketed surplus)

India become self sufficient in food and did not have to import food grains from countries like USA

Also, the government was able to procure buffer stock that could be used during times of shortage

 

Criticism of Green Revolution

Government had to give subsidy in form of free water supply,subsidized rate of fertilizers/Pesticides

Since these were provided free/at subsidized rate, it lead to their overuse. This was harmful for the environment

Contribution of agriculture to GDP declined from 59% to 39%

Population depending upon Agriculture also declined from 67.5% to 64.9%

Advantages and distadvantages of green revolution in India - Teachoo.JPG

 

Why such a large percentage of Population was still dependent upon agriculture after 4 decades ?

Population depending upon Agriculture also declined from 67.5% to 64.9%

Such a large percentage of people were not required in agriculture

The main reason why such a large amt of people are working was that Industrial sector and service sector

were not able to generate sufficent jobs for India's rising population

 

Lets summarize all the points one by one

Summary-Status Of Indian Agriculture - Teachoo.JPG

 

NCERT Questions

Q4

What are High Yielding Variety (HYV) seeds?

View Answer

 

Q5

What is marketable surplus?

View Answer

 

Q6

Explain the need and type of land reforms implemented in the agriculture sector.

View Answer

 

Q7

What is Green Revolution?

Why was it implemented and how did it benefit the farmers?

Explain in brief.

View Answer

 

Q13

Explain the statement that green revolution enabled the government to procure sufficient food grains to build its

stocks that could be used during times of shortage.

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Q14

While subsidies encourage farmers to use new technology, they are a huge burden on government finances.

Discuss the usefulness of subsidies in the light of this fact.

View Answer

Q15

Why, despite the implementation of green revolution, 65 per cent of India’s population continued to be engaged in the

agriculture sector till 1990?

View Answer

 

Q19

Match the following:

1. Prime Minister A. Seeds that give large proportion of output
2. Gross Domestic Product B. Quantity of goods that can be imported
3. Quota C. Chairperson of the planning commission
4. Land Reforms D. The money value of all the final goods  and services produced within the economy in one year
5. HYV Seeds E. Improvements in the field of agriculture to increase its productivity
6. Subsidy F. The monetary assistance given by government for production activities.

 

View Answer

 

MCQ Other Books

Q1

In the following questions, select the correct answers:

1 Abolition of Intermediaries' and 'Land Ceiling are part of:

A Industrial reforms in india

B External Sector reforms in india

C Land reforms in india

D Banking reforms in india

View Answer
  1. Class 12 NCERT
  2. Indian Economic Development

Transcript

WHAT WERE LAND REFORMS During British Rule There was Zamindari System where Zamindars were Owner of Land They collected rent from cultivators and deposited to British Govt Farmer (They worked on land) Paid Rent Zamindar (They Owned land) Paid Revenue (Tax) Britishers (They collected tax) Measure Taken by Govt After Independence Land Reforms Made and Zamindari System Abolished Cultivators became owners, No tax/Rent to be paid on Agriculture Farmer They became Owner Zamindar Zamindari System Abolished Indian Govt No Tax on Agriculture WHAT WAS LAND CEILING During British Rule Large Land holding in few hands Few persons in village owned large area of land while majority were landless Large Land holding in few hands Few persons in village owned large area of land while majority were landless Large Land holding in few hands Few persons in village owned large area of land while majority were landless Land Ceiling Govt fixed maximum size of land which could be owned by an individual Example Suppose there are 6 persons in Village- A,B,C,D,E,F and G Land held by them as follows Majority of Land with A, No Land with E,F and G Example Some Land taken from A and given to E,F,G At time of Independence Agriculture Production in India was not sufficient, So food grains imported from USA USA (More Agriculture Production) Import of Food India (Less Agriculture Production) Measure Taken by Govt Green Revolution launched in Mid 1960’S To make India Self Sufficient Now no need of Importing food grains, Instead India became exporting them India (Production Increased) (No need of Import) Export Other Countries Green Revolution Meaning It means large increase in Agricultural Production It is achieved by using high yielding variety of seeds, fertilizers and better irrigation techniques Why Carried out Earlier food grains imported from USA Green Revolution made to make India Self sufficient in food When Carried Out Carried in 2 Phases Phase 1 Phase 2 Mid 1960-Mid 1970 Punjab, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu Mid 1970 to Mid 1980 Other States like UP,MP Increase in Marketable Surplus (Due to Green Revolution) At time of Independence Food grains produce by farmers were mostly self consumed. Very little quantity was sold in market (Low Marketable Surplus) Due to low supply, price of food grains was high Wheat Produced 100 Kg Wheat Self Consumed 80 Kg Wheat Sold (marketable Surplus) 20 kg Less Quantity High Price Measure Taken by Govt Due To Green Revolution, Agriculture Producion increased More quantity was available for sale in market (increase in Marketable Surplus) This Reduced Price of food grains Wheat Produced 150 Kg Wheat Self Consumed 80 Kg Wheat Sold (marketable Surplus) 70 kg More Quantity Less Price Advantages and Disadvantages of Green Revolution in India POSITIVE EFFECTS Green Revolution led to Increase In Agricultural Production Increase in Marketable Surplus India became Self Sufficient in food No need to Import Food Grains from USA CRITICISMS Contribution to GDP of Agriculture declined from 59% to 39% People dependent upon Agriculture also declined from 67.5% to 64.9% There was harmful effects due to use of Chemical Fertilizers and pesticides Example Example Advantages and Disadvantages of Green Revolution in India POSITIVE EFFECTS Green Revolution led to Increase In Agricultural Production Increase in Marketable Surplus India became Self Sufficient in food No need to Import Food Grains from USA CRITICISMS Contribution to GDP of Agriculture declined from 59% to 39% People dependent upon Agriculture also declined from 67.5% to 64.9% There was harmful effects due to use of Chemical Fertilizers and pesticides Summary-Status Of Indian Agriculture Conditions at the time of Independence vZamindari System (Zamindars were Owner of Land They collected rent from cultivators) Large Land holding in few hands Few persons in village owned large area of land while majority were landless Import of Food Grains Production was not sufficient, So food grains imported from USA Low Marketable Surplus (Food grains produce by farmers were mostly self consumed rather than selling in market) Due to low supply, price of food grains was high Measures taken by Government (1950-90) Land Reforms Made Cultivator became owner of land Zamindari System Abolished Land Ceiling Govt fixed maximum size of land which could be owned by an individual Green Revolution launched in Mid 1960’S to make India became Self Sufficient Now no need of Import Increase in Marketable Surplus Due To Green Revolution, Agricultural Production Increased More quantity was available for sale in market This Reduced Prices

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CA Maninder Singh
CA Maninder Singh is a Chartered Accountant for the past 10 years. He also provides Accounts Tax GST Training in Delhi and Pune.