Study the given flow chart and answer any of the four questions from (a) to (e).
(a) Identify X, Y and Z.
(i) X-Glycolysis, Y-Anaerobic, Z-Aerobic
(ii) X-Krebs cycle, Y-Aerobic, Z-Anaerobic
(iii) X-Glycolysis, Y-Aerobic, Z-Anaerobic
(iv) X-Glycolysis, Y-Aerobic, Z-Krebs's cycle
- Carbohydrates are broken down into pyruvic acid by the process of glycolysis . ( Glycos means glucose and lysis means breakdown , so glycolysis is the breakdown of glucose.)
- In the presence of oxygen , pyruvic acid is broken down aerobically into CO 2 and H 2 O to release a large amount of energy.
- In the absence of oxygen , pyruvic acid is broken down anaerobically into CO 2 and C 2 H 5 OH to release a small amount of energy.
Thus, X is Glycolysis, Y is Aerobic, Z is Anaerobic
So, the correct option is (iii)
(b) The process X occurs in ________ and Y occurs in _________ part of the cell.
(i) Mitochondria and cytoplasm respectively
(ii) Cytoplasm and mitochondria respectively
(iii) Both takes place in cytoplasm
(iv) Both takes place in mitochondria
- Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell
- And, pyruvic acid is broken down aerobically into CO 2 , H 2 O and energy inside the mitochondria .
- That is why mitochondria is known as the powerhouse of the cell .
So, the correct answer is (ii) - Cytoplasm, mitochondria respectively.
(c) In which of these organisms the process Z takes place?
(i) (i) Bacteria
(ii) (ii) Humans
(iii) (iii) Yeast
(iv) (iv) Spirogyra
The process Z i.e. anaerobic breakdown of pyruvic acid to produce ethanol and CO 2 is also known as fermentation and it takes place in yeast.
This is the reason why yeast is used in alcohol producing and bread making industries
So, the correct answer is (iii) Yeast
(d) In which part of the human body does the process Z take place?
(i) In muscle cells
(ii) In kidneys
(iii) In liver cells
(iv) In leydig’s cell
When we do heavy exercise, there is a scarcity of O 2 due to which the glucose in our muscles breaks down anaerobically.
So, the correct option is (i) In muscle cells
(e) Where does aerobic respiration occur in a cell?
Mitochondria is responsible for breaking down glucose in the presence of air (aerobic respiration)
Thus, the correct answer is, (i) Aerobic respiration occurs in the mitochondria of the cell.