Chemical Reactions of Acids

  1. Acid reacting with Metals
    Acid reacts with Metals to form Salt and Hydogen gas is also released.
                                      Acid + Metals → Salt + Hydrogen Gas

    When Zinc (Zn)  reacts with dilute Sulphuric Acid (H 2 SO 4 ) , it produces a salt called Zinc Sulphate (ZnSO 4 )  and Hydrogen Gas.
                                   Zn(s) + H 2 SO 4 (aq) → ZnSO 4 (aq) + H 2 (g)
    Reaction of Zinc Metal with Dilute Sulphuric Acid.jpg

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  2. Acid reacting with metal carbonates and metal hydrogen carbonates
    Acid Reacts with Metal Carbonates to form Salt, water and release Carbon Dioxide

                         Acid + Metal Carbonate → Salt + Carbon Dioxide + Water


     Note : The carbon dioxide released is in the form of brisk effervescence (subtle white smoke).

    For example


    i.) When dilute Hydrochloric Acid reacts with Sodium Carbonate , it produces a salt called Sodium Chloride, Water and Carbon Dioxide is released.




                                                      2HCl(aq) + Na 2 CO 3 (s)  →  2NaCl(aq)+ H 2 O(l) + CO 2 (g)


    ii.) When  Hydrochloric Acid reacts with Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate, it produces a salt called Sodium Chloride, water and Carbon Dioxide.


                                         Acid + Metal Hydrogen Carbonate →  Salt + Carbon Dioxide + Water

                                                    HCl(aq) + NaHCO 3 (s)  →  NaCl(aq)+ H 2 O(l) + CO 2 (g)


     Note : The carbon dioxide released is in the form of brisk effervescence (subtle white smoke).


    • The CO 2 evolved in the above reactions when passed through lime water ( Ca(OH) 2 Solution) turns the lime water milky due to the formation of white coloured precipitate of Calcium Carbonate (CaCO 3 ).

                                                           Ca(OH) 2 (aq) + CO 2 (g) → CaCO 3 (s) + H 2 O(l)

                                   

    • If excess Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) is passed through lime water over a prolonged period of time , the lime water again returns to a colourless liquid as the milkiness disappears due to the formation of a soluble salt called Calcium Hydrogencarbonate (Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 )  .

                                                          CaCO 3 (s) + CO 2 (g) + H 2 0 (l) → Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 (s) 

    Carbon Dioxide being passed through lime water-Teachoo.jpg

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  3. Acid reacting with Metallic Oxides and Metal Hydroxide

    Acids react with Metal Oxides to form Salt and Water

     

    Acid + Metal Oxide/Metal Hydroxide → Salt + Water  

     

    When Dilute Hydrochloric acid reacts with Copper (II) Oxide (CuO) , it forms a salt called Copper (II) Chloride (CuCl 2 )  and Water(H 2 0).


                                                 CuO (s) + HCl (aq) → CuCl 2 (s) + H 2 O (l)

Copper Oxide reaction with HCl-Teachoo.jpg

 

NCERT Question - Q3, Q4, Q14



Intext Question - Page 22 Q1, Q2, Q3

NCERT Question - Q3, Q5




Intext Question - Page 25 Q1, Q2, Q3

NCERT Question - Q6, Q8

 

Chemical Reactions of Bases 

 

  1. Reaction of Base with Metals
    This reaction leads to the formation of a salt and hydrogen gas is also released.

                                              Base + Metal → Salt + Hydrogen Gas

    When Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, a base) is heated with Zinc (Zn, a metal),it forms Sodium Zincate (Na2ZnO2, a salt) and Hydrogen Gas (H2). This hydrogen gas produces a pop sound
                                        2NaOH (aq) +Zn (s) →Na 2 ZnO 2 (aq) + H 2 (g)

    Reaction of zinc granules with dilute sulphuric acid and testing hydrogen.jpg
  2. Reaction of Base with Non-Metal Oxides:

    Base reacts with Non-metal Oxides to form Salt and water


                                                                    Non-Metal Oxide + Base → Salt + Water


    When Calcium Hydroxide ( Ca(OH) 2 , a base) reacts with Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 , a Non-metal Oxide) , it results in the formation of the salt Calcium Carbonate ( CaCO 3 ) and Water ( H 2 O).


                                                             Ca(OH) 2 (aq) + CO 2 (g) → CaCO 3 (s) + H 2 O (l)


    Note : Since this is a form of a neutralisation reaction which yields salt and water , we can conclude that CO 2 is and Acid since it neutralises Ca(OH) 2

Passing carbon dioxide gas through calcium hydroxide solution.jpg

  1. Class 10
  2. Chapter 2 Class 10 - Acids, Bases and Salts (Term 1)

About the Author

CA Maninder Singh's photo - Founder at Teachoo
CA Maninder Singh
CA Maninder Singh is a Chartered Accountant for the past 11 years and a teacher from the past 11 years. He teaches Science, Accounts and English at Teachoo