Acids can be categorised based on different properties.

Classification of Acid-Teachoo.jpg

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Based on Source

- Acids can be classified as Mineral or Natural Acids based on their origin.

  1. Natural /Organic Acids   : These are the Acids present in nature in plant and animal material.In general , these are weak acids. A few examples of natural acids and their sources are: 

    Name of the Acid

    Source

    Acetic Acid

    Vinegar

    Ascorbic Acid

    Guava, Amla

    Citric Acid

    Lemon, Orange and other citrus fruits

    Lactic Acid

    Sour milk, Curd

    Methanoic Acid

    Ant sting, Nettle sting

    Oxalic Acid

    Tomato

    Tartaric Acid

    Tamarind


    Source of Acid-Teachoo.jpg

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  2. Mineral / Inorganic Acids: These acids are synthesized and man-made by a series of chemical reactions and procedures.These are usually strong acids and can damage and burn through organic substances such as human skin. Some mineral acids and their formulas are:


    Examples

    Formula

    Hydrochloric acid

    HCl

    Nitric acid

    HNO 3

    phosphoric acid

    H 3 PO 4

    Sulphuric acid

    H 2 SO 4

    Boric acid

    H 3 BO 3

 

Based on Concentration : 

Acid solutions can be Concentrated and Diluted based on the ratio of acid to water.

  1. Concentrated Acids :
    These are the acids which have high concentration of acid and comparatively lesser amount of water. For example: Laboratory type Sulphuric Acid (H 2 SO 4 ) ( roughly 98 percent by weight) is a concentrated acid and so is the acid produced in our stomach. Acid ions per unit volume of the solution is large.

  2. Dilute Acids : These are acid solutions which have a higher percentage of water as compared to the actual acid. These are usually considered weak acids. For example: A dilute solution of H 2 SO 4 .

Concentrated and Diluted Acids-Teachoo.jpg

Note - Mixing an acid with water leads to decrease in the concentration of Hydronium ions. Since the number of ions per unit volume is reduced ,the solution is called a diluted solution. This process of reducing ions per unit volume is called dilution.

 

Based on Ionising capability : 

 

Acids are classified as Strong and Weak Acids Based on how they ionise (split up into charged particles in water) .

 

Strong Acids

These are acids that give rise to more H + ions in water and get completely ionised. For Example : HCl and other mineral acids are strong acids.

 

 

HCl → H + + Cl

 

Note : The single arrow in the above reaction shows that HCl is completely ionised. This means that every single molecule of HCl has broken up into H + and Cl -   ions.

Weak Acids

These acids only get partially ionized in water and produce less amount of H + ions. For Example: Acetic acid and other organic acids are usually weak Acids.

 

CH 3 COOH ⇌ CH 3 COO - + H +

 

Note: The double arrow pointing towards both left and right show that CH 3 COOH has not completely ionised. Which means there are still some molecules of acetic acid (CH 3 COOH ) which have not split up into ions.

 

 

  1. Class 10
  2. Chapter 2 Class 10 - Acids, Bases and Salts (Term 1)

About the Author

CA Maninder Singh's photo - Founder at Teachoo
CA Maninder Singh
CA Maninder Singh is a Chartered Accountant for the past 11 years and a teacher from the past 11 years. He teaches Science, Accounts and English at Teachoo