1. Minerals :

Minerals are those elements on the earth and in foods that our bodies need to develop and function normally.


2. Geologist : 

Geologists are scholars who are interested in studying the formation of minerals, their age, physical and chemical composition.


3. Geographers : 

Geographers are scholars who study minerals as a part of earth’s crust for an understanding of landforms . Distribution of mineral resources and associated economic activities are interest to geographers.


4. Lustre :

A gentle sheen or soft glow


5. Ores :

A source from which valuable minerals are extracted from.


6. Igneous rocks :

Igneous rocks are defined as types of rocks that are formed when molten rock (rock liquefied by intense heat and pressure) cools to a solid state.


7. Metamorphic rocks :

Metamorphic rocks are formed when rock changes over a period of time due to a lot of physical changes like pressure, heat and different chemical activity.


8. Sedimentary rocks :

Sedimentary rocks are created by accumulating existing rocks or fragments of extinct organisms on the Earth's surface.


9. Placer deposits :

Some minerals occur as alluvial deposits in sands of valley floors and base of hills. These deposits are called ‘ placer deposits’ and contain minerals, which are not corroded (destroyed) by water.

ex.Gold, silver, tin and platinum


10. Rat hole mining :

In most tribal areas, of North East India, minerals are owned by individuals and communities.

In Meghalaya, there are large deposits of coal, iron ore, limestone,etc.

Coal mining in Jowai and Cherapunjee is done by a family member in the form of a long narrow tunnel, called Rat Hole Mining.

National green tribunal has declared it illegal and has to be stopped .


11. Kudre :

Kudre in Kannada means horse. Highest peak in the western ghats of Karanataka resembles the face of a horse. The Bailadila hills look like the hump of an ox, and hence, its name.


12. Malleable :

that can be hit or pressed into shape easily without breaking or cracking


13. Ductile :

Ability to be drawn out into a thin wire


14. Conventional sources of energy :

Conventional energy  means the energy source which is fixed in nature like oil, gas and coal. In other words conventional energy is also termed as non-renewable energy sources. Their use leads to increased greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental damage. Example. Coal and Petroleum.


15. Non conventional sources of energy :

Non-conventional sources of energy, often known as renewable sources of energy, are energy sources that are continually renewed by natural processes. Non-conventional energy sources are not quickly depleted and may be created at a consistent pace for repeated usage.


16. Anticlines :

an area of ground where layers of rock in the earth’s surface have been folded into an arch


17. Hydro electricity :

Hydroelectric power, is a renewable source of energy that generates power by using a dam or diversion structure to alter the natural flow of a river or other body of water.


18. Photovoltaic energy :

Photovoltaic solar energy is obtained by converting sunlight into electricity using a technology based on the photoelectric effect.

Conversion of sunlight into electricity through Photoelectric effect


19. Geothermal energy :

Geothermal energy is heat that is generated within the Earth. 

(Geo means “earth,” and thermal means “heat” in Greek.)

It is a renewable resource that can be harvested for human use. 

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Davneet Singh

Davneet Singh has done his B.Tech from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He has been teaching from the past 14 years. He provides courses for Maths, Science, Social Science, Physics, Chemistry, Computer Science at Teachoo.