Conventional sources of energy :

Coal :

  • In India, coal is the most abundantly available fossil fuel. 
  • It provides a substantial part of a nation's energy needs.
  • It is used for power generation, to supply energy to industry as well as for domestic needs.
  • India is highly dependent on coal for meeting its commercial energy requirements.
  • Coal is formed due to compression of plant material over millions of years.
  • Coal is found in variety of forms depending on degrees of compression and depth and time of burial.
  • PEAT : Decaying plants in swamps produce peat, which has a low carbon and high moisture content and low heating capacity.
  • LIGNITE : i s a low grade brown coal which is soft, with high moisture content.
  • Principal lignite reserves are in Nevyeli in Tamil Nadu and are used for generation of electricity. 
  • BITUMINOUS : Coal that has been buried deep and subjected to increased temperatures is bituminous coal, It is the most popular coal in commercial use.
  • Metallurgical coal is high grade bituminous coal which has a special value for smelting iron in blast furnaces.
  • ANTHRACITE : is the highest quality hard coal.
  • In India, coal occurs in rock series of 2 main geological ages, namely Gondwana , little over 200 million years in age and tertiary deposits of about 55 million years old.
  • Major resources of gondwana coal, which are metallurgical coal, are located in Damodar Valley ( West bengal- Jharkhand), Jharia, Raniganj, Bokaro are important coalfields,
  • The Godavri, Mahanadi, Son and Wardha Valleys also contain coal deposits.
  • Tertiary coals occur in north eastern states of Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.

Petroleum :

  • Petroleum or mineral oil is the next major energy source in India after coal.
  • It provides fuel for heat and lighting, lubricants for machinery and raw materials for number of manufacturing industries.
  • Petroleum refineries act as ‘ nodal industry’ for synthetic textile, fertiliser and numerous chemical industries.
  • Most petroleum occurrences in India are associated with anticlines ( fold of a stratified rock) and fault traps in rock formations of tertiary age.
  • Petroleum is also found in fault traps between porous and non porous rocks. 
  • Mumbai High, Gujarat and Assam are major petroleum production areas in India.
  • Ankeleshwar is the most important field of Gujarat.
  • Assam is the oldest oil producing state of India.
  • Digboi, Naharkatiya and Moran Hugrijan are the most important oil fields in the state.

Natural Gas :

Uses of Natural Gas 

  • Natural Gas is found with petroleum deposits and is released when crude oil is brought to the surface.
  • It can be used as a domestic and industrial fuel for heating, electricity generation , chemical and fertilizer production , and transportation.
  • Expansion of gas infrastructure and local city gas distribution (COD) networks, natural gas is also emerging as a preferred transport fuel (CNG) and cooking fuel (PNG) at homes.
  • India has significant gas reserves located in the Mumbai High and allied fields on the west coast , as well as in the Cambay basin.
  • More recently, new gas reserves have been identified in the Krishna-Godavari basin on the east coast.  
  • The Hazira-Vijaipur-Jagdishpur (HVJ) cross-country gas pipeline was constructed by GAIL (India) and is 1,700 km long .
  • The pipeline connects Mumbai High and Bassein gas fields with various fertilizer, power, and industrial complexes in western and northern India .
  • Overall, India’s gas infrastructure has expanded over ten times from 1,700 km to 18,500 km of cross-country pipelines.
  • The Gas Grid project aims to link all gas sources and markets across the country, including North Eastern states, with a pipeline network of over 34,000 km.

Electricity :

  • Has wide range of applications.
  • Electricity is generated mainly in 2 ways : by running water which drives hydro turbines to generate hydro electricity ; and by burning other fuels such as coal, petroleum, natural gas to drive turbines to produce thermal power.
  • Hydro electricity is generated by fast flowing water, which is a renewable resource.
  • India has a number of multi purpose projects like Bhakra Nangal, Damodar Valley corporation, the Kopili Hydel project, etc. producing hydroelectric power.
  • Thermal electricity is generated by using coal, petroleum and natural gas.
  • Thermal power stations use non renewable fossil fuels for generating electricity.
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Davneet Singh

Davneet Singh has done his B.Tech from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He has been teaching from the past 14 years. He provides courses for Maths, Science, Social Science, Physics, Chemistry, Computer Science at Teachoo.