Weather conditions and variations over a large area for a long period of time (more than thirty years).


It refers to the state of the atmosphere over an area at any point of time.


Monsoon refers to the seasonal reversal in the wind direction during a year.


Movement of water in the ocean

Coriolis Force

An apparent force caused by the earth’s rotation. The Coriolis force is responsible for deflecting winds toward the right in the northern hemisphere and toward the left in the southern hemisphere.


Horizontal lines that measure distance north or south of the equator.


Height of the place above the sea level.


As the distance from the sea increases, the weather conditions become extreme. Places away from the sea experience hot summers and extremely cold winters. This condition is known as continentality.

Southern Oscillation

When there is a reversal in the pressure conditions, the eastern Pacific has lower pressure in comparison to the eastern Indian Ocean. This periodic change in pressure conditions is known as the Southern Oscillation(SO).

El Nino


El Nino is a climate pattern that describes the unusual warming of surface waters in the eastern Pacific Ocean.


The winter rainfall is locally known as Mahawat which is suitable for the cultivation of rabi crops.


‘Loo’ is strong, gusty, hot, dry winds that blow during the day over North and North-Western India.

Advancing Monsoon

Monsoon: An Advancing Monsoon in India refers to the Rainy Season that lasts for a period of 4  months from June to September.

Retreating Monsoon

The Retreating Monsoon refers to the transition season that lasts from October to December.










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Davneet Singh

Davneet Singh has done his B.Tech from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He has been teaching from the past 14 years. He provides courses for Maths, Science, Social Science, Physics, Chemistry, Computer Science at Teachoo.