Climatic Controls

Factors controlling the climate 

  • The climate of any region is controlled by major six factors.
    • Latitude, 
    • Altitude, 
    • Pressure and wind system, 
    • Distance from the sea (continentality), 
    • Ocean currents 
    • Relief features
  • The amount of solar energy received varies with latitude due to the curvature of the earth. 
  • As a result, the temperature gradually decrease s from the equator to the poles.
  • The atmosphere becomes less dense and the temperature decreases as one ascends from the earth's surface to higher altitudes. 
  • As a result, the hills are cooler in the summer. 
  • The pressure and wind systems of any location are determined by their latitude and altitude.
  • As a result, it has an impact on the temperature and rainfall pattern. 
  • The sea has a moderating effect on climate : as one's distance from the sea increases,  its moderating influence decrease, and people experience extreme weather conditions.
  • This condition is known as continentality (i.e. very hot during summers and very cold during winters). 
  • Ocean currents and onshore winds influence coastal climate . For example, any coastal area with warm or cold currents flowing past it will be warmed or cooled if the winds are onshore.
  • Finally, relief plays an important role in determining a location's climate. 
  • High mountains act as barriers to cold or hot winds; if they are high enough and in the path of rain-bearing winds, they may also cause precipitation. Mountains on the leeward side remain relatively dry.
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Davneet Singh

Davneet Singh has done his B.Tech from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He has been teaching from the past 14 years. He provides courses for Maths, Science, Social Science, Physics, Chemistry, Computer Science at Teachoo.