The Seasons

  • The monsoon type of climate is characterized by a distinct seasonal pattern.
  • Temperatures do not vary much along the coast, but rainfall patterns change frequently.
  • India has four main seasons: cold weather, hot weather, advancing monsoon, and retreating monsoon .

The Cold Weather Season (Winter)

  • The c old weather Season is arrived in India by mid - November and stays till February.
  • In Northern India, December and January are the coldest months.
  • The temperature decreases from south to north.
  • Chennai, which is located on the eastern coast, experienced the average temperature between 24° – 25° Celsius , while in the northern plains , it ranges between 10°C and 15° Celsius.

Characteristics of The Cold Weather Season (Winter)

  • Days are warm and nights are cold. 
  • Frost is common in the north and the higher slopes of the Himalayas experience snowfall.
  • The northeast trade winds dominate the country during this season. 
  • They blow from land to sea, resulting in a dry season for the majority of the country.
  • Rainfall occurs on the Tamil Nadu coast from these winds as here they blow from sea to land.
  • In the northern part of the country, a feeble high-pressure region develops , with light winds moving outwards from this area. 
  • These are Influenced by the relief, these winds blow through the Ganga valley from the west and the northwest.
  •  The weather is normally marked by clear sky, low temperatures, low humidity, and feeble, variable winds
  • The inflow of cyclonic disturbances from the west and northwest are a defining feature of the cold weather season over the northern plains. 
  • These low-pressure systems f orm over the Mediterranean Sea and western Asia before moving into India with the westerly flow. 
  • They bring much-needed winter rains to the plains and snow to the mountains.
  • The total amount of winter rainfall, known locally as' mahawat and is suitable for the cultivation of 'rabi' crops.
  • The peninsular region lacks a distinct cold season. 
  • Because of the sea's moderating influence , there is little seasonal variation in temperature patterns during the winter.

The Hot Weather Season (Summer)

  • In India summers occurs due to the a pparent northward movement of the sun , which shifts the Global Heat  Belt northward.
  • In India, the hot weather season begins in March and lasts till Mid-June
  • In peninsular India , temperatures remain lower due to the moderating influence of the oceans.
  • The summer months experience rising temperatures and falling air pressure in the northern part of the country.
  • Towards the end of May , an elongated low-pressure area develops i n the region extending from the Thar Desert in the northwest to Patna and Chotanagpur plateau in the east and southeast.
  • The 'loo' is a prominent feature of the hot weather season . These are strong, gusty, hot, dry winds that blow across northern and northwest India. 
  • Dust storms are common in northern India during the month of May. 
  • These storms provide temporary relief by lowering the temperature and possibly bringing light rain and a cool breeze
  • Localised thunderstorms, associated with violent winds, torrential downpours, often accompanied by hail are known as the 'Kaal Baisakhi' in West Bengal.
  • Pre-monsoon showers are common near the end of the summer season , especially in Kerala and Karnataka. 
  • Pre-monsoon showers help in the early ripening of mangoes and thus, it is commonly known as mango showers. '

Advancing Monsoon (The Rainy Season)

  • The Advancing Monsoon in India is prevalen t from June to  September.
  • By early June , the low-pressure area over the Northern Plains has intensified and is attracting trade winds.
  • These trade winds originate in the Southern Hemisphere over the warm tropical ocean.
  • After crossing the equator, these blow in the direction of the peninsula as the South-West monsoon.
  •  They cover the entire subcontinent, with the exception of the extreme northwest, in just over a month.
  • The windward side of the Western Ghats receives more than 250 cm of rain.
  • The northeastern part of the country receives the most rainfall during this season.
  • Mawsynram, in the southern ranges of the Khasi Hills, has the world's highest average rainfall. 

Phenomenon of Rainfall Break

  • Monsoon has its tendency to have ‘breaks’ in rainfall. 
  • They are separated by rainless intervals
  • These monsoon breaks are caused by the movement of the monsoon trough .
  • When the a xis of the monsoon trough passes over the plain s , rainfall is abundant. 
  • When the axis shifts closer to the Himalayas , the plains experience longer dry spells and widespread rainfalls in the mountainous catchment areas of the rivers.

Destruction caused during the Monsoon season

  • These heavy rains cause devastating floods in the plains , causing loss of life and property. 
  • The amount and duration of monsoon rains are also determined by the frequency and intensity of tropical depressions. 
  • The monsoon is known for its unpredictability. 
  • The intensity, frequency, and duration of the dry-wet cycle vary
  • While it causes heavy flooding in one area ( Assam, Bihar, Kerala, West Bengal, etc).
  • Lack of monsoon causes droughts in other states (Rajasthan)
  • Its arrival and departure are frequently erratic. 
  • As a result, it occasionally disrupts the farming schedules of millions of farmers across the country.

Retreating/Post Monsoons (The Transition Season) 

  • During October and November , the monsoon trough or low-pressure trough over the northern plains weakens due to the apparent movement of the sun to the south. 
  • The s outhwest monsoon winds begin to weaken and withdraw gradually.
  • By the beginning of October, the monsoon withdraws from the Northern Plains.
  • The months of October and November mark the transition from the hot rainy season to the dry winter conditions.  
  • Clear skies and a rise in temperature signal the end of the monsoon. While the days are hot, the nights are cool and pleasant.
  • Northern India experiences a r apid drop in temperature in the second half of October.
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Davneet Singh

Davneet Singh has done his B.Tech from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He has been teaching from the past 14 years. He provides courses for Maths, Science, Social Science, Physics, Chemistry, Computer Science at Teachoo.