• From the early 19th century, there were debates around religious issues.
  • Some people criticized existing religious practices, while some advocated them.
  • There were controversies between social and religious reformers and hindu orthodoxy over matters like widow immolation,monotheism, Brahmanical priesthood and idolatry.
  • In Bengal, ideas were printed and circulated in everyday,spoken language of people so that it reaches a wider audience.
  • In 1821, Rammohun Roy published the SAMBAD KAUMUDI criticizing hindu practices.
  • Hindu orthodoxy commissioned the SAMACHAR CHANDRIKA to oppose his opinions.
  • From 1822, 2 persian newspapers , JAM-I-JAHAN NAMA and SHAMSUL AKHBAR began to be published.
  • BOMBAY SAMACHAR, a gujarati newspaper, also began to be published.


  • In north India, ULAMAS ( legal scholars of Islam and sharia) were deeply anxious about collapsing Muslim dynasties.
  • They feared colonial rulers may change Muslim personal laws.
  • To counter this, they also made use of print and published Religious newspapers and Persion or Urdu translations of holy scriptures.
  • In 1867, The Deoband Seminary , published 1000s of FATWAS ( legal declaration on Islamic Law given by a mufti/ legal scholar ), telling muslim readers about how to conduct themselves in everyday lives.


  • Hindus made use of the print too and published religious texts.
  • In 1810, the first edition of RAMCHARITMANAS by TULSIDAS came out.
  • From 1880s, the Naval Kishore Press at Lucknow and Shri Venkateshwar press in Bombay published many religious texts in local languages.
  • Religious texts reached a very wide circle of people and even encouraged debates, discussions and controversies.
  • Print also connected a variety of people from different walks of life, as it united people with same opinions.

Painting By Raja Ravi Varma - Teachoo.jpg


  • Raja Ritudhwaj rescuing Princess Madalsa from the captivity of demons, print by Ravi Varma.
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Davneet Singh's photo - Co-founder, Teachoo

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Davneet Singh

Davneet Singh has done his B.Tech from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He has been teaching from the past 14 years. He provides courses for Maths, Science, Social Science, Physics, Chemistry, Computer Science at Teachoo.