Europe saw mass literacy and women,children and workers began reading.


  • Primary education became compulsory and children became important category of readers.
  • A children’s press set up in France in 1857, only for Children’s Literature.
  • Fairy tales and folk tales were published by this press.
  • In 1812, Grimm Brothers in Germany published a collection of stories and folk tales that they had gathered from peasants.
  • Print recorded old tales but also changed them in a way, that the things that were thought as vulgar or unsuitable for children were not included in the stories.
  • Women also became important readers and writers.
  • Penny magazines, manuals teaching proper behaviour and Housekeeping , were only meant for women.
  • Best known female novelists : Jane Austen, Bronte Sisters and George Eliot.
  • They defined new type of women - a person with will, strength of personality and determination.
  • Lending libraries in England became instruments for educating white collar workers, Artisans and even lower middle class people.
  • For s elf improvement and self expression, workers began writing. They wrote political tracts and autobiographies in large numbers.

Frontpiece of Penny Magazine - Teachoo.jpg

Frontispiece of Penny Magazine.

  •  Penny Magazine was published between 1832 and 1835 in England by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge .
  • It was aimed primarily at the working class. 


  • There were significant developments in printing technologies.
  • By mid 19th century, Richard M. Hoe of New York perfected the power driven cylindrical press , capable of printing 8,000 sheets per hour. 
  • It was particularly used for printing newspapers.
  • In late 19th century, offset press was developed which could print 6-8 colours at one time.
  • From 20th century, electrically operated presses came into use.
  • Printers and publishers continuously developed new strategies to sell their products.
  • In 1920s, England, popular works were sold in cheap series called SHILLING SERIES.
  • Dust cover/ Book Jacket was a 20th century innovation.

Manuscript in Devanagari script - Teachoo.jpg

Manuscript in Devnagari script.

                                                                      ( Source : WikiPedia)

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Davneet Singh

Davneet Singh has done his B.Tech from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He has been teaching from the past 14 years. He provides courses for Maths, Science, Social Science, Physics, Chemistry, Computer Science at Teachoo.