Europe saw mass literacy and women,children and workers began reading.
CHILDREN,WOMEN AND WORKERS :
- Primary education became compulsory and children became important category of readers.
- A children’s press set up in France in 1857, only for Children’s Literature.
- Fairy tales and folk tales were published by this press.
- In 1812, Grimm Brothers in Germany published a collection of stories and folk tales that they had gathered from peasants.
- Print recorded old tales but also changed them in a way, that the things that were thought as vulgar or unsuitable for children were not included in the stories.
- Women also became important readers and writers.
- Penny magazines, manuals teaching proper behaviour and Housekeeping , were only meant for women.
- Best known female novelists : Jane Austen, Bronte Sisters and George Eliot.
- They defined new type of women - a person with will, strength of personality and determination.
- Lending libraries in England became instruments for educating white collar workers, Artisans and even lower middle class people.
- For s elf improvement and self expression, workers began writing. They wrote political tracts and autobiographies in large numbers.
Frontispiece of Penny Magazine.
- Penny Magazine was published between 1832 and 1835 in England by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge .
- It was aimed primarily at the working class.
FURTHER INNOVATION :
- There were significant developments in printing technologies.
- By mid 19th century, Richard M. Hoe of New York perfected the power driven cylindrical press , capable of printing 8,000 sheets per hour.
- It was particularly used for printing newspapers.
- In late 19th century, offset press was developed which could print 6-8 colours at one time.
- From 20th century, electrically operated presses came into use.
- Printers and publishers continuously developed new strategies to sell their products.
- In 1920s, England, popular works were sold in cheap series called SHILLING SERIES.
- Dust cover/ Book Jacket was a 20th century innovation.
Manuscript in Devnagari script.
( Source : WikiPedia)