(a) What is genetics?
(b) What are genes? Where are the genes located?
(c) State and define three factors responsible for the rise of a new species.
Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the study of genes and heredity in organisms.
Gene is a physical and functional unit of heredity made up of DNA . Genes are located in the chromosomes.
Factors responsible for the rise of a new species are:
- Geographical isolation - New species are formed when the population of the same species splits into 2 separate groups which then get isolated from each other geographically by barriers such as mountain ranges, rivers or sea.
- Genetic drift - Drastic changes in the frequencies of genes in a small population is called genetic drift.
- Natural selection - It is the process of evolution of a species whereby characteristics which help individual organisms to survive and reproduce are passed on to their offspring , and those characteristics which do not are not passed on.