(a) What is genetics?

(b) What are genes? Where are the genes located?

(c) State and define three factors responsible for the rise of a new species.




Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the study of genes and heredity in organisms.


Gene is a physical and functional unit of heredity made up of DNA . Genes are located in the chromosomes.


Factors responsible for the rise of a new species are:

  • Geographical isolation - New species are formed when the population of the same species splits into 2 separate groups which then get isolated from each other geographically by barriers such as mountain ranges, rivers or sea. 
  • Genetic drift - Drastic changes in the frequencies of genes in a small population is called genetic drift. 
  • Natural selection - It is the process of evolution of a species whereby characteristics which help individual organisms to survive and reproduce are passed on to their offspring , and those characteristics which do not are not passed on.


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CA Maninder Singh is a Chartered Accountant for the past 13 years and a teacher from the past 17 years. He teaches Science, Economics, Accounting and English at Teachoo