Properties of Solids

 

Particles of Solid are closely bound

There is higher force of attraction between particles

Solids have fixed shape and fixed volume

Size of solids do not change and it occupies fixed space

Solids do not take shape of container like liquids

Example-If ice is put in a container, it does not take shape of container

 

 


Solids do not flow like liquids

Liquids flow from one place to another

However solids have fixed shape and do not flow or move

 

Question 1

Rubber band changes its shape. Then why is it called solid?
Ans
Rubber band changes its shape only on stretching (when a force is applied on it)
When force is removed, it regains its original shape
Hence, we can say that rubber band has fixed shape
Also, it satisfies all other properties of solids (it has fixed volume,it does not flow like liquids and do not take shape of container)

 

Question 2

Salt and Sugar do not appear to have fixed shape
Why is it still a solid?
Ans
Sugar/Salt are made up of tiny crystals
Shape of these crystals are fixed
Hence these are called solids
Sugar/Salt appear to take shape of container where they are kept but this is because of their small size, they do not actually change shape

 

Properties of Liquids

Particles of Liquids are close to each other (but not as close as solids)
Liquid does not have fixed shape, they take shape of container they are kept in
Liquid does not fill container completely like gases (This is because particles of liquids have higher density than gases and are close to each other)
Liquids have fixed volume (the space occupied by then does not increase or decrease)
Liquids are able to flow easily as particles are able to slide over each other

 

Activity to Show Particles have Fixed Shape but not Fixed Volume

We take different types of tumbler like
Beaker
Glass Tumbler
Conical Tumbler
Flat bottomed Flask


Pour 1 litre of water in beaker
Water takes shape of beaker
Now we pour same water into glass tumbler
Water takes shape of glass tumbler

Similarly if we put it into conical tumbler or flat bottomed tumbler
It takes shape of the tumbler

Now we pour it back into original tumbler
We notice that it takes shape of original tumbler
Also we notice that its volume remains same as earlier (of 1 litre)

Hence, we can say that Particles of Liquid have fixed shape but not fixed volume

 

Properties of Gases

Particles of Gases are much far apart compared to solids and liquids

Gas do not have fixed shape


Gas do not have fixed volume


Gases have low density

Particles of gas can be compressed easily because of their low density

 

Gas fill container completely

Gases flow easily as particles are free to flow easily from one place to another

 

Activity to Show Air has no Fixed Volume or Fixed Shape

Take 2 different shape volume
We fill equal amount of air in both volumes
We notice that both inflated volumes have different shapes
Also we notice that volume of both the balloons is not same
This shows that
Air has no Fixed Volume or Fixed Shape

 

 

Activity to Show Gases can be compressed but Solids and Liquids can not be compressed

We take 3 syringes A, B, and C
We fill them with Salt, Water and Air
We close the nozzle of all syringes by inserting them in cork
This is to prevent leakage from them

Now we press syringe
We see that Syringe A containing salt and Syringe B containing water cannot be compressed
But Syringe C Containing air can be compressed

This shows that
Gases can be compressed but Solids and Liquids can not be compressed

Arrangement of particles  in solids - Teachoo.png

Liquid particles have fixed shape but not fixed volume - Teachoo.png

Sheet11img2.png

Gases can be compressed but solids and liquids cannot be compressed easily - Teachoo.png

Particles of solid and closely bound and have fixed volume and shape - Teachoo.png

Liquid particles have fixed shape but not fixed volume. Change the order of the 3 different containers in this image - Teachoo.png

Arrangement of particles in gases - Teachoo.png

  1. Class 9
  2. Chapter 1 Class 9 - Matter In Our Surroundings

About the Author

Davneet Singh's photo - Teacher, Computer Engineer, Marketer
Davneet Singh
Davneet Singh is a graduate from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He has been teaching from the past 9 years. He provides courses for Maths and Science at Teachoo.