When pollutants(gases) from factories react with water vapour present in the atmosphere it forms acid 

And when this acid drops down with rain,it is known as Acid rain.




Sulphur Dioxide

Sulphuric Acid

Nitrogen Dioxide 

Nitric Acid



Sulphur Dioxide    +    Water Vapour    =     Sulphuric Acid

Nitrogen Dioxide  +     Water Vapour    =     Nitric Acid



How does Acid Rain Occur?


The burning of fossil fuels, petrol and diesel releases harmful gases in atmosphere like Sulphur Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide 

These gases get mixed with water vapour present in the atmosphere.

And form harmful acids like Sulphuric Acid and Nitric Acid

These acids dissolve in rainwater and fall on the earth in the form of rainwater

This is called Acid Rain


How does acid Rain Form - Teachoo.jpg

Harmful effects of Acid Rain


Acid rain effects both living and non living things 


  • It damages the leaves of the plants and decreases the fertility of the soil

Animals and Humans

  • Acids present in the acid rain makes it difficult for humans and animals to breathe
  • Aquatic Life
    Acid rain causes the water in ponds, lakes and rivers to become more acidic and hence unsuitable for survival of aquatic plants and animals
  • Non Living things 


Monuments and building get discoloured due to acid rain

Example - Acid Rain has caused white marble of Taj Mahal to turn yellow

Taj Mahal Discoloration Photo.jpg


Refer to NCERT Question 6

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  1. Class 8
  2. Chapter 18 Class 8 - Pollution of Air and Water

About the Author

Davneet Singh's photo - Teacher, Computer Engineer, Marketer
Davneet Singh
Davneet Singh is a graduate from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He has been teaching from the past 9 years. He provides courses for Maths and Science at Teachoo.