• Gender division is based on social expectations and stereotypes and not on biology .
  • Gender division is understood as natural and unchangeable. 
  • Gender division is constructed as oppositional and hierarchica l in situations in which the masculine is privileged.


  • Boys and girls are brought up to believe that the main responsibility of women is housework and bringing up children . This is reflected in a Sexual division of Labour in most families.
  • The result of this division of labour is that although women constitute half of humanity, their role in public life , especially politics, is minimal in most societies.
  • Earlier, only men were allowed to participate in public affairs, vote, and contest for public office.
  • Gradually t he gender issue was raised in politics.
  • Women in different parts of the world organized and agitated for equal rights.
  • These were agitations in different countries for the extension of voting rights to women.
  • These agitations demanded enhancing the political and legal status of women and improving their educational and career opportunities.
  • Radical movements aimed at equality in personal and family life as well. These movements are called FEMINIST movements.
  • The political expression of gender division and political mobilization on this question helped to improve women’s role in public life.
  • India is a male-dominated Patriarchal society , women face disadvantages, discrimination, and oppression in various ways:
  • The literacy rate among women is only 54 percent compared with 76 percent among men.
  • On average, an Indian woman works one hour more than an average man every day, and yet much of her work is not paid.
  • The Equal Remuneration Act, of 1976 provides that equal wages should be equally paid to equal work. However, in almost all areas of work, women are paid less than men, even when both do the same work.
  • In India, sex-selective abortion led to a decline in the child sex ratio.
  • Urban areas have become particularly unsafe for women.

Women’s Political Representation 

  • Issues related to women are not given adequate attention.
  • This has led many feminist and women’s movements to the conclusion that u nless women control power, their problems will not adequate attention.
  • In India, the proportion of women in the legislature has been very low.
  • Gender division is an example that some form of social division needs to be expressed in politics.
  • This also shows that disadvantaged groups do benefit when social division becomes a political issue.
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Davneet Singh

Davneet Singh has done his B.Tech from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He has been teaching from the past 14 years. He provides courses for Maths, Science, Social Science, Physics, Chemistry, Computer Science at Teachoo.