Explain the reasons favouring shift from hand printing to mechanical printing in China.
Points to remember :
- China produced books by rubbing paper against the inked surface of woodblocks.
- China made use of printed material for its civil service examinations.
- In 16th century, demand of print increased and it became a leisure activity.
- Rich women began to read and write.
- Technology from west was adopted for printing.
- Shanghai became hub of new printing culture.
Answer to be written in exam :
- China became the first country to start print, from AD 594 onwards. The books were printed by rubbing paper against the inked surface of woodblocks.
- The Imperial State in China was the major producer of printed material for a long time. The huge bureaucratic system in China recruited its personnel through civil service examinations and a vast number of printed material was required for these examinations.
- From the 16 th century, the number of candidates for these examinations increased and Hence, the demand of print increased too.
- As Urban Culture bloomed, uses of print diversified. The sense of a reading culture emerged. It became a leisure activity. Rich women began to read and publish their poetry and plays.
- This reading culture was accompanied by new technology imported from the west. Western printing techniques were adopted and mechanical presses were imported in the late 19 th century. There was a gradual shift from hand printing to mechanical printing.
- SHANGHAI became the hub of new print culture.
( any 3 points)*