Check sibling questions
  • Liberalism and Nationalism became the essence of revolution among many parts of Europe .
  • These revolutions were led by educated middle class elite which included professors, school teachers, clerks and members of commercial middle classes .
  • The revolutions began in France in 1830 when the conservative monarch was overthrown by the liberal - nationalists and Louis Phillipe was made the constitutional monarch .
  • France became an example for the whole of Europe .
  • Greek independence mobilised the nationalist feelings among the educated middle class.
  • Starting from France , the revolution spread across Italy, Germany, Ireland and Poland .


The Romantic Imagination and National Feeling

  • Nationalism did not come only through wars and territorial expansion but also through the Culture and cultural activities like art, poetry, stories and music .
  • Romanticism was the cultural movemen t which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist feeling .
  • Romantic artists believed in creating a sense of shared collective heritage which formed the basis of a nation .
  • Johann Gottfried Herder was a German philosopher who believed that true German Culture was to be discovered among common people .
  • The intention of spreading the message of nationalism through vernacular language and folklore was to enhance the knowledge of the illiterate people .
  • Poland is the biggest example for this.
  • Along with music and folklore , revolt for language also took place in Poland in 1831 when it was freed from the Russian empire.


Hunger, Hardship and Popular Revolt

PEASANTS UPRISING IN 1848 - Teachoo.jpg

  • In the 1830s , Europe faced a lot of struggles when a large part of the population migrated towards the urban settlements.
  • There was a lot of unemployment because of the stiff competition against the machine produced goods of England .
  • In the year 1848 , people of Paris came out on roads due to widespread food shortage and unemployment .
  • This led to Louis Phillipe fleeing away in terror.
  • As a result, the National Assembly proclaimed a Republic , granted suffrage to all adult males above the age of 21 and guaranteed Right to work .
  • National workshops to provide employment were also set up .
  • One of the most popular European revolts of this sort took place in Silesia in 1845.
  • Small weavers led the revolt against contractors who were exploiting them.
  • Around 18000 rebellions attacked the storehouses of the contractor , which forced him to flee away with his family.
  • In this altercation , 11 rebellions were also shot.


1848: The Revolution of Liberals

The Frankfurt Parliament in the church of St. Paul - Teachoo.jpg

  • Along with the revolts done by the poor people , the educated middle class also started raising their voices for what they demanded .
  • In parts of Europe like Germany, Italy, Poland and Austro - Hungarian empire, men and women of liberal middle classes combined their demands for constitutionalism with national unification .
  • In Germany , a large number of political associations were formed whose members included middle - class professionals, businessmen and prosperous artisans .
  • These associations voted to form an all - German National Assembly on May 18,1848 with 831 elected members.
  • They drafted a constitution but it was strongly opposed by aristocrats and the military.
  • This led to the disbandment of the assembly as the middle - class opposed the demands of artisans and workers .
  • The role of women was still of an observer in the assembly even after they had formed their own political associations and they were also not granted suffrage rights.
  • Conservative forces were able to suppress these movements but could not restore the old order of the monarchy.
  • Finally, serfdom and bonded labour were abolished in Habsburg dominions and in Russia in 1867.

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Davneet Singh

Davneet Singh has done his B.Tech from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He has been teaching from the past 13 years. He provides courses for Maths, Science, Social Science, Physics, Chemistry, Computer Science at Teachoo.