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Animal: Nervous System

Stimulus, response, receptors and effectors.

  • Stimulus is the change, factor, or agent in an internal or external environment which brings reaction in organisms. All kinds of stimuli are sensed and detected by specialized tips of nerve cell s.
  • Response is the reaction towards a stimulus by an organism. Nervous tissue cannot work alone in receiving the stimulus and responding to it.Therefore, it requires receptors and effectors.
  • Receptors are the cells, tissue s  or organs that receive the stimulus and initiate impulses to sensory tissues.T he receptors are located usually in the inner ear, nose, tongue, skin, eyes etc.




  • Effectors are tissues, glands or muscles which act in response to stimulus received from the nervous system.

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5 BASIC SENSORY RECEPTORS IN HUMAN Phenoreceptors (Inner Ears) Photoreceptors (Eyes) Olfactory receptors (Nose) Thermoreceptors (Skin) Gustatory receptors (Tongue) Sense of bound body balance Sense of sight Sense of smell Sense of touch/pain/heat Sense of taste

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CA Maninder Singh is a Chartered Accountant for the past 13 years and a teacher from the past 17 years. He teaches Science, Economics, Accounting and English at Teachoo