Check sibling questions
English Class 12
Reading Comprehension

Read the passage given below:

(1)Every morning Ravi gives his brain an extra boost. We’re not talking about drinking strong cups of coffee or  playing one of those mind-training video games advertised all over Facebook. ‘‘I jump onto my stationary bike and  cycle for 45 minutes to work,’’ says Ravi. ‘‘When I go to my desk, my brain is at peak activity for a few hours.’’ After his  mental focus comes to a halt later in the day, he starts it with another short spell of cycling to be able to run errands. 

(2)Ride, work, ride, repeat. It’s a scientifically proven system that describes some unexpected benefits of cycling.  In a recent study in the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, scientists found that people scored higher on tests  of memory, reasoning, and planning after 30 minutes of spinning on a stationary bike than they did before they rode the bike. They also completed the tests faster after pedalling. 

(3)Exercise is like fertilizer for your brain. All those hours, spent on exercising your muscles, create rich capillary  beds not only in leg and hip muscles, but also in your brain. More blood vessels in your brain and muscles mean more  oxygen and nutrients to help them work. When you pedal, you also force more nerve cells to fire. The result: you  double or triple the production of these cells — literally building your brain. You also release neurotransmitters (the  messengers between your brain cells) so all those cells, new and old, can communicate with each other for better, faster  functioning. That’s a pretty profound benefit to cyclists. 

(4)This kind of growth is especially important with each passing birthday, because as we age, our brains shrink  and those connections weaken. Exercise restores and protects the brain cells. Neuroscientists say, ‘‘Adults who exercise  display sharper memory skills, higher concentration levels, more fluid thinking, and greater problem-solving ability  than those who are sedentary.’’ 

(5)Cycling also elevates your mood, relieves anxiety, increases stress resistance, and even banishes the blues.  ‘‘Exercise works in the same way as psychotherapy and antidepressants in the treatment of depression, maybe better,’’  says Dr. Manjari. A recent study analyzing 26 years of research finds that even some exercise — as little as 20 to 30  minutes a day — can prevent depression over the long term. 

(6)Remember: although it’s healthy, exercise itself is a stress, especially when you’re just getting started or  getting back into riding. When you first begin to exert yourself, your body releases a particular hormone to raise your  heart rate, blood pressure, and blood glucose levels, says Meher Ahluwalia, PhD, a professor of integrative physiology.  As you get fitter, it takes a longer, harder ride to trigger that same response.

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Question 4 ( i )

When nerve cells work during exercise then __

(A) the body experiences stress. 

(B) the brain is strengthened by multiplying  them. 

(C) you start to lose your temper. 

(D) your stationary cycle starts to beep.

Answer

Exercising strengthens the brain . More blood vessels in your brain and muscles mean more  oxygen and nutrients to help them work . It results in multiplication of the brain cells in return building the brain.

So, the correct answer is (B).

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Question 4 (ii)

What are the unexpected benefits of cycling? 

(A) Sharpens the memory. 

(B) improves reasoning. 

(C) improves planning skills.

(D) all of these.

Answer

Cycling provides - 

  • (A) sharpens the memory - Exercising strengthens the brain hence improving memory.
  • (B) improves reasoning - Exercising leads to multiplication of the brain cells in return building the brain.
  • (C) improves planning skills - Exercising leads to more blood vessels in your brain and muscles improving planning skills.

So, the correct answer is (D).

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Question 4 (iii)

The more one pedals, more is  ________. 

(A) production of nerve cells 

(B) the release of neurotransmitters 

(C) both (A) and (B) 

(D) neither (A) nor (B)

Answer

Paddling fires our nerve cells, in return - 

  • (A) production of nerve - increases productivity of the cells and 
  • (B) the release of neurotransmitters - more exertion leads to release of neurotransmitters.

So, the correct answer is (C).

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Question 4 (iv)

Why does Ravi do a circuit of ‘ride’, work,  ride?  (A) because he wants to stay focused. 

(B) because after cycling to work, his brain is  at the peak of activity level.

(C) Both (A) and (B) 

(D) Neither (A) nor (B)

Answer

After the circuit of ‘ride’, ‘work’ and ‘ride’ because - 

  • the brain activity is at peak level ( (B) because after cycling to work, his brain is  at the peak of activity level. )
  • provides a great amount of mental focus possible. ( (A) because he wants to stay focused. )

So, the correct answer is (C).

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Question 4 (v)

What is the work of neurotransmitters? 

(A) They are like messengers between your  brain cells. 

(B) With the help of neurotransmitters, cells  can communicate with each other. 

(C) It makes the functioning better and faster. 

(D) All of these.

Answer

Neurotransmitters act as - 

  • They are like messengers between your  brain cells.
  • With the help of neurotransmitters, cells  can communicate with each other.  
  • It makes the functioning better and faster. 

So, the correct answer is (D)

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Question 4 (vi)

Why is exercise so important for adults?

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(A) Only 1 and 4  

(B) 1, 2 and 3

(C) Only 2 and 3  

(D) 1, 2, 3, 4

Answer

Let’s first understand the meanings of the points provided.

  • Have sharp memory skills - Quick to remember
  • Higher Concentration levels - To have great focus
  • More fluid thinking - clarity in thoughts
  • Greater problem solving abilities - Quick to find solutions

Exercising helps us in and out and all four of the points can be achieved through exercising.

So, the correct answer is (D).

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Question 4 (vii)

Based on the understanding of the passage,  choose the option that lists the correct  sequence of ‘How is exercise itself a stress?’ 

  1. The body releases a particular hormone.

  2. As one gets fitter, it takes a longer and more rigorous exercising to trigger the same response.

  3. As soon as one states exercising, the body reacts immediately.

  4. That hormone raises one’s heart rate, blood pressure and blood glucose levels.

(A) 1, 2, 3, 4  

(B) 1, 3, 4, 2 

(C) 3, 1, 4, 2  

(D) 4, 3, 2, 1

Answer

From the paragraph, we know:

Step 1: As soon as one starts exercising, the body  reacts immediately.  (Point 3)

Step 2: The body releases a particular hormone. (Point 1)

Step 3: That hormone raises one’s heart rate,  blood pressure and blood glucose levels. (Point 4)

Step 4: As one gets fitter, it takes a longer and  more rigorous exercising to trigger the  same response. (Point 2)

 

So, the correct answer is (C).

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Question 4 (viii)

Find word from the passage which means the same as (the following) inactive: (Para 4) 

(A) passing  

(B) sedentary

(C) shrink   

(D) weaken

Answer

Let us first understand the meanings of the options.

  • (a) passing - to pass a ball to someone
  • (b) sedentary - person who is always sitting, performing less physical activities
  • (c) shrink - to reduce in size
  • (d) weaken - to loss power or strength

The given word inactive means not engaging in much physical activities

Hence, with the help of the meanings we can conclude that the closest word to inactive would be sedentary .

So, the correct answer is (B).

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Question 4 (ix)

Find word/phrase from the passage which  means the opposite of ‘abstain’ from functioning: (Para 6) 

(A) stress  

(B) back into riding 

(C) exert  

(D) trigger

Answer

Let us first understand the meanings of the options:

  • (a) stress - pressure or tension
  • (b) back into riding - to ride after a long time
  • (c) exert - to make an effort
  • (d) trigger - the cause to function

The given word abstain means to restrain oneself from performing a task.

Amongst the given options the one that is opposite to abstain would be exert .

So, the correct answer is (C).

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Question 4 (x)

‘Banishing the blues’ is an idiom. Pick up the  blue colour idiom which is NOT CORRECT. 

(A) Bolt from the blue    

(B) Once in a blue moon. 

(C) Caught blue-handed. 

(D) Out of the blue.

Answer

Let us first understand the meanings of the idioms.

  • (a) Banishing the blues - fending of melancholy feelings
  • (b) Bolt from the blue - a complete surprise
  • (c) Out of the blue - unexpectedly
  • (d) Caught blue- handed is not an idiom. The correct idiom is caught red- handed which means to be caught while committing a misdeed.

So, the correct answer is (C).

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