Check sibling questions
English Class 12
Reading Comprehension

  Donated Organs and their Transportation 

(1)Once an organ donor’s family gives its consent and the organs are matched to a recipient, medical professionals  are faced with the onerous challenge of transporting organs while ensuring that the harvested organ reaches its  destination in the shortest possible time. This is done in order to preserve the harvested organs which involves the  police especially the traffic police department. 

(2)The traditional method of transporting organs by road is referred to as a “green corridor”. The first green  corridor in India was created by Chennai Traffic Police in September 2008, when they accomplished their task of  enabling an ambulance to reach its destination within 11 minutes during peak hour traffic. That organ saved a nineyear-old girl whose life depended on the transplant. Similarly, such green corridors have been created by traffic police  of various cities such as Pune, Mumbai, Delhi NCR etc. 

(3)Experts point out the lack of a robust system to transport organs to super-speciality hospitals in least possible  time. National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organisation (NOTTO), the country’s apex organ donation agency, is now  framing a proposal to airlift cadaver organs and will send a report to the Union Health Ministry. “Cadaver organs have  a short life and so transplant should be done within a few golden hours.” Director (NOTTO) expressed, “Therefore, we  are preparing a proposal for airlifting organs at any given moment.” 

(4)Most states do not have enough well-trained experts to retrieve or perform transplant procedures. Also, there  is an acute shortage of advanced healthcare facilities to carry out a transplant. So, it is referred to other big centres in  metropolitan cities. Organs retrieved from Aurangabad, Indore, Surat and Pune are sent to Mumbai as these cities do  not have super-speciality healthcare centres, informed officials. 

(5)“In India, about fifty thousand to one lakh patients are suffering from acute heart failure and need heart  transplant at any point of time. In a private set-up, a heart transplant costs ` 15-20 lakhs, which is followed up by  postoperative medication of about ` 30,000 per month lifelong.” Moreover, the risk factor is great hindrance.

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Question 1 ( i )

The first green corridor in India was created  in:

(A) New Delhi       

(B) Chennai

(C) Mumbai       

(D) Pune

Answer

Checking the options -

  • (A) New Delhi - A green corridor was made, but it was not the first.
  • (B) Chennai - A green corridor was made and was the first.
  • (C) Mumbai - A green corridor was made, but it was not the first.
  • (D) Pune - A green corridor was made, but it was not the first.

The first green corridor was built by the traffic police in Chennai

So, the correct answer is (B) .

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Question 1 (ii)

The onerous task that the author is talking  about in para 1 is: 

(A) finding organ donors. 

(B) finding doctors capable of performing  transplants. 

(C) to carry the harvested organ in the  shortest possible time.

(D) to arrange the requisite facilities for the  transplant.

Answer

The word ‘ onerous ’ means a task that involves a huge amount of effort .

So, according to the passage we can know that the answer is to carry the harvest organ in the shortest possible time

 

So, the correct answer is (C) .

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Question 1 (iii)

Most of the people do not go for the heart  transplant as: 

(A) it is very risky. 

(B) it is very painful. 

(C) it may cause death of the recipient. 

(D) the cost is prohibitive.

Answer

  • (A) it is very risky - even though it is risky, people do go for it as they feel that transplants might help the heart
  • (B) it is very painful - even though it is painful, people do go for it
  • (C) it may cause death of the recipient - even though it is fatal, people do go for it
  • (D) the cost is prohibitive - since it is costly, people are unable to afford heart transplants

Heart transplants are pretty costly with lifelong recurring expenses making the cost prohibitive .

So, the correct answer is (D) .

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Question 1 (iv)

Most states refer organ transplant cases to  big hospitals because: 

(A) they don’t have well trained experts. 

(B) the patients don’t trust local doctors. 

(C) the state hospitals are very crowded. 

(D) they don’t have a pool of harvested  organs.

Answer

Paragraph 4 of the passage mentions that states do not have well- trained experts to perform transplants. 

So, the correct answer is (A) .

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Question 1 (v)

Apart from Chennai, where were other green  corridors created? 

(A) Delhi NCR

(B) Pune 

(C) Mumbai

(D) All of the above

Answer

  • (A) Delhi NCR - has a green corridor
  • (B) Pune - has a green corridor
  • (C) Mumbai - has a green corridor

The traffic police have created green corridors in Chennai, Pune, Mumbai, Delhi NCR , etc. 

So, the correct answer is (D) .

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Question 1 (vi)

How much does a heart transplant cost a  patient in a private hospital? 

(A) Rs. 15-20 lakhs

(B) Rs. 20 lakhs 

(C) Rs. 20-25 lakhs

(D) None of these

Answer

The transplant usually costs Rs 15-20 lakhs with recurring expenses Rs 30000/month.

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Question 1 (vii)

Pick out the word/phrase from the passage  which is similar in meaning to ‘save’ (Para 1) 

(A) onerous  

(B) preserve 

(C) harvest  

(D) retrieve

Answer

Let us first understand the meanings of the options:

  • (a) onerous - task that involves a huge amount of effort
  • (b) preserve - to maintain
  • (c) harvest - period of gathering crops
  • (d) retrieve - to get back

Therefore, the closest word meaning to save would be preserve .

So, the correct answer is (B).

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Question 1 (viii)

Pick out the word/phrase from the passage  which is opposite in meaning to ‘destructed’

(A) accomplished  

(B) created 

(C) transplanted  

(D) advanced

Answer

Let us first understand the meanings of the options:

  • (a) accomplished - highly trained
  • (b) created - to build something
  • (c) transplanted - implantation (transferring) of an organ from one body to another
  • (d) advanced - recently developed; up to date

The given word destructed means to deliberately destroy something terribly

Therefore, the closest word opposite to the word destructed would be created .

So, the correct answer is (B).

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Question 1 (ix)

What is meant by the word ‘retrieve’ (Para 4) 

(A) get back  

(B) recover 

(C) set right 

(D) regain

Answer

The word retrieve means to get back or recover

  • (A) get back - to come or go again to a person, place, or condition
  • (B) recover - to become well again after you have been ill
  • (C) set right - to repair something
  • (D) regain - to get something back that you lost

In context to the line in the comprehension which means that people are unable to recover from transplant procedures due to lack of medical trainees, we can conclude that the word would definitely mean recover .

So, the correct answer is (B)

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Question 1 (x)

What does the author mean by ‘a few golden  hours’? 

(A) Time between patient’s admission in a  hospital and surgery. 

(B) The crucial time available for transplant  of the organ after harvesting it. 

(C) The time of 24 hours post operation. 

(D) The time of two days before admission in  a hospital.

Answer

A ‘ few golden hours ’ means the essential hours for someone or something. Transplant should be performed at a crucial time available for the organ after harvesting it and the doctor performs the transplantation in those precious hours. 

So, the correct answer is (B).

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